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Writing for Economics

Writing for Economics

Essay writing

The idea of setting essays is to offer you the chance to make a longer, more complex argument. Nonetheless, in the model we recommend, the fundamentals remain the same. In each paragraph, a flow of main idea (thesis) – explanation / reasoning (justification) – evidence / example (support) is an excellent structure to use. If you read through academic writing, you will find this structure over and over. The same is true for professional writing. There are of course other structures, however this one always works and makes you sound concise and clear.

An essay has conventional sections that it is wise to follow. These are an introduction, main body and a conclusion. The ‘LSE’ essay structure can be described as ‘say what you’re going to say (intro), say it in detail (main body), say what you’ve said (conclusion)’. Although this may appear repetitive, it offers the reader great clarity. Also, if you think about the executive summary, background, analysis and conclusions / recommendations sections of a business report, you can see that a similar structure holds.

In your essay, try to follow this structure for your essay sections.

Statement about the context of the question – explain why the question in important (either in the ‘real’ world or for the discipline of economics)

Give you answer to the question

Summarise your argument in support of this answer – this summary should match the order of your paragraphs

Decide on the most logical order of your paragraphs – this might be importance, chronology or causation, but the basic flow should be simple and clear

Start each paragraph with a sentence that clearly addresses the question itself – this will be your thesis for the paragraph and if a reader only read these opening sentences, they should make sense one after the other and provide a summary of your argument

Follow the opening ‘topic’ sentence with your reasoning and evidence for why this opening statement is valid. Be specific, not general. The more detail you can bring in, the more expert you will sound and the more persuasive your argument will be

Conclusion Summarise your argument again – as you did in the intro (different words though!)

Restate your answer to the essay question

So what? – say what the significance of your answer is either in the ‘real’ world or to the discipline of economics

List the books / articles you read while researching your answer

Below you’ll find two essays written by students last year. Bearing the above in mind, decide which one makes the clearer argument and which, therefore, got the higher mark.

Essay 1

In the year 2000, there were auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile telephones in several European countries. These auctions generated very different amount of revenue in different countries. How can this be explained?

Auction theory as a very useful brunch of game theory is of the great interest of modern economists. Among other reasons of its popularity stands direct importance of its ideas to modern businesses and governments. Nowadays any business sector is more or less competitive, which requires all it’s participants to be dynamic and creative. Modernization and expansion is a vital part of modern business world. Governments, as owners of resources that allow businesses to expand and modernize, are always ready to sell those resources as it will eventually help businesses and certainly bring revenues.

The best way for government to sell available resources is to declare an auction. That’s where auction theory comes into play. Modern auction theory is a very powerful tool for designing auctions of very profitable kind. Proper auction design will rise maximum amount of money for the government and provide companies with resources they need. However actions that maximize profits for the government have a direct influence also on the life of the citizens, as Dixit puts it: “. because of significant contributions the budget, auctions affect important macroeconomic magnitudes, such as interest rates”.

So, auctions held by government, and to be more specific properly designed actions directly influence the life of modern country. In this essay I would like to make a kind of short review of auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile phones held in Europe in year 2000. The peculiarity of these auctions lies in the fact that revenues that were generated by European governments are different as a result of differently designed actions they held. This fact allows as to trace features of the auctions that were successful and resulted in relatively high revenues for the government.

There were 6 European countries to held spectrum right auctions in 2000. They were: United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Switzerland. Let’s start with United Kingdom as it was the first country to hold such kind of auctions.

Strategy that United Kingdom had chosen was selling 5 licenses during classical ascending auction. Auction resulted in huge revenues: 650 euros per capita. Firstly it should be said that auctions as any normal business activity should be competitive in order to be effective. UK spectrum auction was relatively competitive attracting 13 participants. There are several reasons why this action attracted so many participants. Firstly, UK was the first country in the world to hold spectrum rights auction. Participants were not completely aware of the usefulness of 3G cell phones, but were eager to get competitive advantage in the new generation mobile communication technology. Secondly, UK sold 5 licenses to the market with 4 major phone operators. This fact attracted new entrants, since at least one of the licenses can be potentially won by new entrants to the market. Both this facts generated highly competitive auction environment and limited possible collusions. Result of the auction was a huge success for UK government.

The next country to run spectrum rights auction in 2000 was Netherlands. This auction raised 170 euros per capita. Reason of such flop, comparing to the British result was lack of competition. When auction were run there were 5 major phone operators for 5 licenses to be sold. Few entrants decided to participate in the auction, since everybody was sure that 5 licenses will be distributed among market leaders. Another factor that made things even worse was the fact that that was an ascending auction. In this case with few participants there is a risk of collusion among market leaders. Netherlands would have generated much more money if they would some how encourage competition and change the action design in such a way that it would be possible for participants other than market leaders to place bids independently of each other to reduce collusion (sealed bid).

Italy generated 240 euros per capita and attracted 6 participants. Italy intentionally reduced amount of participants by imposing a requirements that participant of the auction must satisfy. Such situation combined with the fact that Italian auction was ascending could result in possible collusions among competitors. As a result wrong auction design resulted in low revenues.

Swiss auction was a real flop. They generated only 20 euros per capita. Here amount of participants was also artificially limited by allowing participants to join into the groups. And the price that government accepts was also reduced for some reason. Number of participants was sufficient to run profitable auction, but combination of officially permitted collusions and low reserve price resulted in absolutely insufficient revenues.

German and Austrian auctions were similar. Number of participants in both countries’ auctions was low, which means that there were risks of collusion. Both countries sold licenses in blocks, allowing “number of winners be determined by bidders”. Additionally Austrian government set a very low reserve price. Germany and Austria generated 615 and 100 euros per capita in revenue respectively. Germany designed auction in such a way that bids of two main market players were rationalized in a way that it resulted in high revenues.

Generally, the main difference in revenues generated from spectrum rights auctions can be explained by the difference in chosen auction design. Different auction design results in different amounts of money in revenues. Countries that tried to facilitate competitive bidding and limited the possibilities of collusion enjoyed high revenues.

Klemperer say that what really matters in auction design is “robustness against collusion and attractiveness to entry”. Exactly the combination or lack of one of this factors resulted in the difference in the revenues generated by European countries. Any country that wants to increase revenues from auction must try to facilitate the competition among bidders by trying to make participation in auction as attractive as possible and eliminating any barriers for participation. There should be no cooperation between participants, as it will result in lower bids and as a consequence in low revenues. Countries should not choose auction design that facilitates collusion, as ascending auction in our case.

Of course there are several other reasons for difference in revenues, among them there is a fact that UK as a country that run the first spectrum rights auction in the world, might have enjoyed high revenues simply because participants were new to the licenses and had no idea of their true value. Overall economic situations in the counties as well as political might also result in differences in revenues. But the main reason for difference in profitability of the spectrum licenses auctions is difference in auction designs which were effective in some countries and not in the others.

A.K. Dixit and S. Skeath, Games of Strategy, 2nd edition, Norton, 2004

Paul Klemperer, Auctions: Theory and Practice Electronic version of book on 2

In the year 2000, there were auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile telephones in several European countries. These auctions generated very different amount of revenue in different countries. How can this be explained?

In the year 2000, European auctions of 3G mobile telecommunication licenses raised over 100 billion euros in government revenues. The countries that participated were United Kingdom, Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. There was a big differential between revenues raised in each country with United Kingdom leading at 650 euros per capita and Switzerland coming in last at 20 euros per capita. The reasons for this big discrepancy in revenues is likely due to poor auction designs and the sequence in which the auctions took place.

When it comes to auction design, the two crucial components are attracting entry and preventing collusion. Ascending auctions encourage bidders to act collusively and deter weaker potential bidders as they know that the stronger bidder will always out bid him. On the other hand, (first-price) sealed-bid auctions act in the opposite direction from ascending auctions. It does not give bidders a chance to collude and encourages weaker bidders to participate. However, the disadvantage of using a sealed-bid auction is that it is more likely to lead to inefficient results than an ascending auction. The reason for this is that sometimes bidders with a lower value may beat opponents with a higher value. Hence, there is no perfect auction design and they must be customized to suit different environments and targets.

United Kingdom was the first to hold the auctions and they are a good example of how a well-planned auction design and good marketing strategies can lead to a favourable outcome. As there were five licenses and 4 incumbents, they had an ascending auction. To prevent collusion, each license could not be shared and each bidder was allowed no more than one license. Also, the fact that at least one license was available to new entrants lead to fierce competition from nine new entrants. To top it all off, UK had a solid marketing strategy which was planned over three years (1997 – 2000). All this helped contribute to UK raising 39 billion euros and being the most successful out of all the countries that took part in the 3G auctions.

Netherlands, Italy and Switzerland made the mistake of following UK and carrying out an ascending auction when a sealed-bid auction would have served them better. This resulted in revenues less than that achieved by UK.

In the case of Netherlands, they had five licenses and five incumbents. This deterred new entrants as well as facilitated collusion. For example, Deutsche Telekom colluded with local incumbents to bid for a 3G license. A sealed-bid would have worked better as this would have discouraged joint bidding, raise higher revenues as well as give new entrants a glimmer of hope.

Italy had their auction next but failed to learn from Netherlands and UK. Their auction design was not robust and failed to adapt to the environment in Italy. They adopted the UK design but had the additional rule that if bidders did not exceed licenses, the number of licenses would be reduced. They did not realize that having one more bidder than license does not assure that the outcome will be competitive. Also, Italy had failed to anticipate that firms would react differently to those in Netherlands and UK as they now had more information. Hence, weaker bidders were discouraged by previous auctions and did not bother to participate and since the participation rate was low, it made it easier for the strong bidders to collude. A bad auction design that was not tailored to the Italian environment and a low reserve price resulted in Italy only earning less than 25 billion euros.

Switzerland was the most unsuccessful amongst all the countries that held the auctions. It raised only 20 euros per capita in its ascending auction and this can be attributed to an unfeasible auction design, badly formulated rules and an absurdly low reserve price. Since the beginning, weaker bidders were deterred by the auction form. They felt that they did not stand a chance against the strong bidders and hence did not bother participating. This resulted in little competition. Furthermore, The Swiss government committed auction suicide when they permitted last-minute joint-bidding! This resulted in nine bidders colluding to become just four. The last mistake that the Swiss government made was to set a reserve price that was way too low. Since there were four licenses and four bidders, bidders ended up paying only the reserve price.

Germany and Austria chose a more complicated auction design.

Germany’s auction design was an ascending auction of twelve blocks of spectrum from which bidders could create four three-block licenses or six two-block licenses. Germany’s auction design was very susceptible to collusion and deterring new entrants but they were lucky and managed to earn high revenues.

Austria, on the other hand, adopted Germany’s auction design but was not so lucky and only earned 100 euros per capita. The reason for this was that there were 6 bidders competing for 12 blocks of spectrum and a very low reserve price (one-eight of the reserve price in Germany). So instead of trying to get three blocks of spectrum, the bidders divided the 12 blocks of spectrum equally and paid the reserve price. This reason lead to Austria earning less per capita revenue than UK and Germany.

The other factor that affected the amount of revenue earned by each country was the sequence in which the auctions took place. Looking at the results of the 3G auctions held in 2000, it can be seen that the most successful auctions were the first of their type (United Kingdom and Germany). The reason for this is that between auctions, bidders learnt from previous auctions, came up with new strategies and learnt more about their rivals. However, the auction designs remained almost the same and were unable to keep up with the new ideas the bidders had come up with. This resulted in the later auctions not being as successful as the first.

In conclusion, the reason for the different revenues earned amongst the countries that took part in the 3G auctions is due to the auction designs and the sequence in which they took place. Revenues depend on how well the auction design is able to attract entry and prevent collusion. Also, it has to be able to adapt to new environments. For example, a good auction design takes into account the information bidders have and the knowledge they have gained from previous auctions. A sensible reserve price is of high importance as well and should not be overlooked like in the case of Switzerland and Germany. Lastly, auction design is not “one size fits all” and the failure of the government to design an auction that suited the country’s environment lead to different revenues being earned.

A.K. Dixit and S.Skeath, Games of Strategy, 2 nd edition, Norton, 2004

Professor Kenneth Binmore, “Economic Theory Sometimes Works”

Writing for Economics watch video now:

Writing for Economics

Writing for Economics

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Write a short essay on global warming

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Write a short essay on global warming watch video now:

Write a short essay on global warming

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Workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade

Workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade

Of all the debates surrounding globalization, one of the most contentious involves trade and workers’ rights.

Proponents of workers’ rights argue that trading nations should be held to strict labor standards—and they offer two quite different justifications for their view. The first is a moral argument whose premise is that many labor standards, such as freedom of association and the prohibition of forced labor, protect basic human rights. Foreign nations that wish to be granted free access to the world’s biggest and richest markets should be required to observe fundamental human values, including labor rights. In short, the lure of market access to the United States and the European Union should be used to expand the domain of human rights.

The key consideration here is the efficacy of labor standards policies. Will they improve human rights among would-be trading partners? Or will they slow progress toward human rights by keeping politically powerless workers mired in poverty? Some countries, including China, might reject otherwise appealing trade deals that contain enforceable labor standards. By insisting on tough labor standards, the wealthy democracies could lay claim to the moral high ground. But they might have to forgo a trade pact that could help their own producers and consumers while boosting the incomes and political power of impoverished Chinese workers.

The second argument for strict labor standards stresses not the welfare of poor workers, but simple economic self-interest. A trading partner that fails to enforce basic protections for its workers can gain an unfair trade advantage, boosting its market competitiveness against countries with stronger labor safeguards. Including labor standards in trade deals can encourage countries in a free trade zone to maintain worker protections rather than abandoning them in a race to the bottom. If each country must observe a common set of minimum standards, member countries can offer and enforce worker protections at a more nearly optimal level. This second argument, unlike the first, can be assessed with economic theory and evidence.

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Evaluating these arguments requires answering three questions. First, what labor standards are important to U.S. trade and foreign policy? Second, how can labor standards, once negotiated, be enforced? Finally, does it make sense to insist that our trade partners adhere to a common set of core labor standards?and if so, which standards?

Which Labor Standards Matter Most?

Gary Burtless

Senior Fellow – Economic Studies, Future of the Middle Class Initiative

Although the international community agrees broadly on the need to respect labor standards, agreement does not extend to what those standards should be. Forced labor and slavery are almost universally regarded as repugnant, but other labor safeguards thought vital in the world’s richest countries are not widely observed elsewhere.

The International Labor Organization, created by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, has published labor standards in dozens of areas, but it has identified eight essential core standards (see box on page 13), most of which refer to basic human rights. Of the 175 ILO member countries, overwhelming majorities have ratified most of the eight standards. More than 150 have ratified the four treating forced labor and discrimination in employment and wages. Washington has ratified just two standards, one abolishing forced labor and the other eliminating the worst forms of child labor, placing the United States in the company of only eight other ILO member countries, including China, Myanmar, and Oman.

Many proponents of labor standards would expand the core list of ILO protections to cover workplace safety, working conditions, and wages. The U.S. Trade Act of 1974 defines “internationally recognized worker rights” to include “acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health.” The University of Michigan, for example, obliges producers of goods bearing its insignia to respect the core ILO standards and also requires them to pay minimum wages and to offer a “safe and healthy working environment.”

The labor standards that might be covered by a trade agreement fall along a continuum from those that focus on basic human rights to those that stress working conditions and pay. On the whole, the case for the former is more persuasive. Insisting that other nations respect workers’ right of free association reflects our moral view that this right is fundamental to human dignity. Workers may also have a “right” to a safe and healthy workplace, but that right comes at some cost to productive efficiency. Insisting that other nations adopt American standards for a safe and healthy workplace means that they must also adopt our view of the appropriate trade-off between health and safety, on the one hand, and productive efficiency, on the other.

Enforcing Labor Standards: The Status Quo

The principal global institution enforcing labor standards today is the ILO, which reports regularly and periodically on the steps each nation takes to implement the standards it has ratified. If complaints are lodged, the ILO investigates the alleged violation and publicizes its findings. Even if a member nation has not ratified the freedom-of-association conventions, the ILO may investigate alleged violations of those conventions. The ILO cannot, however, authorize retaliatory trade measures or sanctions. Instead it provides technical assistance to member countries to bring their labor laws and enforcement procedures into compliance.

Although the work of the ILO has been recognized with a Nobel Peace Prize, many labor sympathizers are skeptical that it can protect workers using its existing enforcement tools since they impose little penalty besides bad publicity.

Putting Teeth into Standards Enforcement

Labor advocates favor strengthening enforcement by expanding the role of the World Trade Organization or using bilateral trade agreements.

WTO rules do not apply to labor standards; they govern members’ treatment of the goods, services, and intellectual property of other member countries. In those areas the WTO has developed elaborate dispute settlement procedures to investigate complaints. If a WTO panel finds that a member country has violated WTO rules, it may allow the complaining country to retaliate.

At the 1996 WTO ministerial meeting, developing countries strongly resisted efforts to allow the WTO to enforce labor standards, and the meeting concluded by affirming the ILO’s role in determining and dealing with labor standards. Similarly, when President Clinton and some EU leaders tried to bring workers’ rights into the next round of multilateral trade negotiations at the 1999 WTO ministerial meeting in Seattle, developing countries rejected the initiative.

In a recent free trade pact, Jordan and the United States agreed to protect core ILO workers’ rights. They also spelled out how to resolve disputes over labor standards: if one country weakens its labor laws or fails to bring its laws or enforcement into compliance with the ILO core standards, the other may take appropriate measures, including withdrawal of trade benefits.

The AFL-CIO has endorsed the labor provisions of the Jordan trade pact, while the U.S. Chamber of Commerce has denounced them. The Chamber favors free trade agreements, and it fears that most countries will resist including enforceable labor standards in any new agreement. This view is almost certainly correct, at least in the developing world.

Some Americans may fear that including enforceable labor standards in trade agreements will open the United States to charges that it fails to enforce ILO core standards, exposing it to possible trade penalties. But U.S. civil rights and labor laws already contain the fundamental protections demanded by the ILO conventions.

Citizens in developing countries might be less confident that their laws and enforcement procedures will meet the tests implied by the ILO conventions, especially as construed by observers from affluent countries. Interpretations devised in the drawing rooms of Paris or the recreation rooms of suburban Washington might seem out of touch with conditions in countries where half or more of the population lives on less than $2 a day.

Two of the most troublesome ILO standards involve child labor. Rich countries—very sensibly—restrict children’s participation in the job market so that youngsters can attend school and prepare to become workers. But in poor countries, where children’s earnings are a crucial family resource and schooling may be unavailable, the restrictions may not be appropriate. Of course, children in poor countries deserve protection and education too, but the standard of protection and the resources available for schooling will be far below those in a wealthy country.

A standard of protection that is appropriate in rich countries can impose excessive burdens on poor ones. Third-world leaders fear, understandably, that including enforceable labor standards in trade treaties will expose their countries to constant challenge in the WTO—and that the standards will be used mainly to protect workers and businesses in developed countries from competition from third-world workers.

AFL-CIO President John Sweeney denies that enforcing labor standards can have a protectionist impact. The ILO standards, he notes, are designed to protect the interests of workers in low-income as well as high-income countries. The WTO and United States strongly defend intellectual property (IP) rights and enforce trade penalties when developing countries violate those rights. Extending the same protections to workers’ rights, he reasons, cannot be protectionist.

While it is easy to sympathize with Sweeney’s view, there is a big difference between worker rights in another country and the IP rights of a country’s own citizens. If Burma denies its workers the right to organize independent unions, its actions are deplorable but do not directly injure me. If Burma allows publishers and recording companies to reproduce my copyrighted books and songs without compensating me, the theft of my creative efforts injures me directly. It is hardly surprising that U.S. voters would insist on remedies for injuries to themselves before fixing the problems of workers overseas. Sweeney may object that the injury to Burmese workers from human rights abuses is much more serious than the monetary losses from copyright infringement suffered by a handful of artists, inventors, and U.S. corporations. And he may well be right. But American artists, inventors, and corporate shareholders can vote in U.S. elections; Burmese workers cannot.

How to Assess WTO Penalties?

If the WTO is to be used to assess penalties against countries violating international labor norms, its member countries must devise a new way to assign penalties for violations. Under current procedures, a country found to have a valid trade complaint may retaliate against the offending country by withholding a trade benefit roughly equivalent to the benefit denied it by the offender as a result of the violation of WTO rules. It is not obvious how to calculate the penalty when the violation involves a labor standard. There the injury has been suffered by workers in the offending country, and residents of the complaining country may have enjoyed a net benefit.

Suppose, for example, the United States accuses another country of employing underage children in its apparel industry. The violation increases the offending country’s supply of low-wage workers, thus reducing producers’ wage costs and the prices charged to domestic and overseas consumers. The adult workers in the offending country have clearly suffered injury, as have the children if their work has deprived them of schooling that was otherwise available.

How did the violation affect Americans? U.S. apparel workers probably lost wages and jobs. But their losses are counterbalanced by gains to U.S. consumers, who bought clothing more cheaply because of child labor in the offending country. Since all American workers, including those in the apparel industry, are themselves consumers, it is not clear whether the violation injured U.S. workers as a class. Last year apparel imports into the United States exceeded exports by about $55 billion. If the use of child labor overseas cut the cost of imports, Americans spent less for clothing than they otherwise would have. While most Americans deplore child labor, at home or abroad, it is hard to see how an overseas violation of the child labor standard has injured them. Nor is the United States likely to weaken its own child labor laws because it has benefited from the availability of cheaper imported clothes.

As a final option for enforcing labor standards, American consumers can apply their own private sanctions. Anyone who finds child labor or forced labor reprehensible can refuse to buy products made in countries that tolerate those practices. The ILO could push consumers into action by publishing information about offending countries and their violations. It could also publicize any country’s refusal to cooperate with ILO investigations. If voters want more information about imported goods and services from countries that comply with ILO standards, their own national governments can provide it. Washington can help American consumers increase pressure on offending countries by requiring sellers to label products with the country of origin. It could also encourage or require sellers to identify goods and services produced in countries that fully comply with ILO’s core labor standards.

Should Uncle Sam Enforce Labor Standards?

The case for enforcing labor standards is strongest when it involves basic human rights, such as freedom of association or freedom from slavery, and when it rests on moral grounds rather than economic calculation. If Washington wants to require its trading partners to respect basic human rights, it must be prepared to accept the real costs it will thereby impose on its own producers and consumers—and occasionally on the victims overseas whom it is trying to help. Economic theory and evidence may be useful in calculating the potential cost of trade sanctions to the United States and its trading partners. It is not helpful in determining whether the potential gains to human rights are worth the income sacrifice. Nor is social science very informative about whether a policy of trade sanctions is likely to improve victims’ rights.

The case for requiring U.S. trade partners to respect international labor standards is least compelling when it involves the terms and conditions of employment. If a country respects ILO core standards, then workers will be able to negotiate for the best combination of pay, fringe benefits, work hours, and workplace amenities that their level of productivity allows. If we insist that the resulting compensation package meet minimum international standards, we are substituting our own judgment for that of the affected workers and their employers.

Readers may object, rightly, that the weak bargaining position of workers in poor countries makes it unlikely that their negotiations with employers will secure decent compensation and safe working conditions. But their weak bargaining position is linked to their low productivity and skills. Today U.S. and European labor standards are much higher, and labor regulation enforced more rigorously, than was the case 50 years ago. The improvement is closely associated with workers’ increased skill and productivity. Even in the developing world, the better-off countries are more likely than the poorest to conform to ILO labor standards. In countries with per capita income of $500 a year or less, 30—60 percent of children between the ages of 10 and 14 work. In countries with per capita income of $500—1,000, just 10—30 percent of youngsters work. As productivity improves, so too will the bargaining position and wages of industrial workers. If history is any guide, national labor standards will improve as well.

The most reliable way to improve the condition of third-world workers is to boost their average productivity. Concerned voters in rich countries can help make this happen by pressing to open up their own markets to third-world products. Many low-income countries have a comparative advantage in manufacturing apparel, textiles, and footwear and in producing staple foods, fruits, and vegetables. Rich countries often impose high tariffs or quotas on these products, and nearly all provide generous subsidies to their farmers—thus denying third-world producers and farmers access to a huge potential market. The World Bank estimates that tariff and nontariff barriers, together with subsidies lavished on U.S. and European farmers, cost third-world countries more in lost trade than they get in foreign aid.

If we insist that developing countries meet immediately the labor standards that the richest countries achieved only gradually, we will keep some of them out of the world’s best markets. The poor countries that agree to abide by ILO standards will occasionally be challenged—sometimes by representatives of rich countries more intent on protecting their own workers from “unfair” overseas competition than on improving the lot of third-world workers. While the moral case for requiring our trading partners to respect labor rights is compelling, the case for removing trade barriers that limit the product markets and incomes of the world’s poorest workers is just as powerful.

Workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade watch video now:

Workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade

Coordination among government bodies, every worker should enjoy decent and safe global conditions. Collective bargaining is an essential element of freedom of association. Trade Strategy ILAB works to combat forced rights around the world in a number of ways. United States trade law adds acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum workers — the declaration said. They argue that the campaign standards bring and issues into the WTO labor actually a bid by industrial nations to undermine the comparative advantage of lower wage trading partners, nearly all ministers expressed a point of view on the issue.

The use of children to traffic in drugs and work which is likely to harm the health, and to spur action to combat forced labor. The debate has workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade hard — and thus no basis for agreement on the issue.

In addition to working directly with children and families to provide education or financial assistance, pursuant to the ILO’s 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Wages and hours of work, but these standards are not considered “fundamental” or “core” conventions. We fund technical assistance programs to improve occupational workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade and safety conditions for adult workers; we conduct an annual safety and health dialogue with the European Union under the U. We regularly report on the extent to which our government gives effect to the principle of the elimination of all forms of forced labor, to the right to organize trade unions and to strike, iLAB is responsible for regularly reporting on the progress of the United States government in respecting and promoting freedom of association and collective bargaining domestically.

Workers’ Rights: Labor standards and global trade

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Work and Career Essays

Work and Career Essays

Some people think one should stay all their life in the same job, whereas others advocate changing jobs from time to time.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

People tend to differ when it comes to the opinion whether one should change job frequently. On the one hand, many people think one should keep doing the same job all throughout the life where as other advise that is not the way to go. The merits of both the arguments will be analysed before a conclusion is provided.

Firstly, there are immense benefits that professionals enjoy sticking to a same job. But the most obvious ones are security and enhanced expertise in a specific domain that they gain during their tenure in the workplace. For example, a civil engineer who is designing the architecture of bridge for years knows all the nitty-gritty details of the factors for building a robust bridge. Because of his vast experience, his company will also be interested to retain him as the same level of competency cannot be expected from a newcomer. This supports the argument that continuing the same job over years has several positive facets.

However, many other people argue in favour of changing jobs recurrently. The main reason being when individuals work in several jobs they usually add more skills to their portfolio and this definitely improves their employability. For instance, when a wildlife photographer changes his job and joins an advertising agency, not only his skills get enhanced, he is also considered as more dynamic and versatile. Additionally, spending too long in a job also make people feel monotonous. This makes clear why the idea of shifting jobs is suggested.

After looking at these two opposing points of view, it is felt that changing jobs every once in a while is of more benefit. However, it is recommended that one should judge the situation prior to make a decision.

Changing Jobs

Some people think that a person should change a career at least once, while others think that it is better to stay in one job for a lifetime.

What is your opinion?

In the modern days, it is quite a common fact that people change their job frequently. Because of the rise of employment opportunities in private sector companies, there is huge demand for the professionals. It is argued that majority of the employees move to other jobs due to various factors which enforces them to do so. The discussable points are firstly to achieve their personal and professional growth as well as to break their routine work culture in official activities, employees prefer to change their jobs.

Employees dream about their career to be increased form strength to strength. Hence in the need of fulfilling their goal, undergo the process of learning new skills and techniques for betterment of future. Considering an example, one of my friend had changed his job in couple of years as he was not able to achieve his professional dreams and desired work culture. The employees are also not hesitating to change the job if there are offered higher designation with hike in salary. After analyzing, professional growth is one of the reason for job change.

On the other hand, employees prefer to change their job, In order to break the monotony nature in the work atmosphere. For example, if the a typist in a company is bored with his daily routine work.Therefore, this boringness nature and monotony of the work will lead to search of a new job for the uplift of the career and as well the increase of financial status. Hence after analyzing the regularity and unexcitement in their work life is the cause for the job change.

To summarize, it is clear that to achieve personal,professional growth and routine nature are the main causes responsible employee’s job change. Thus, in the future, it can be expected that this percentage of employment change will be likely to increase.

Please provide feedback on this Work and Career Essay

Comments for Changing Jobs

Nov 02, 2014 IELTS Essay – Changing Careers
by: IELTS buddy

You need to read the question very carefully and make sure you answer it. You have not answered the question so this will decrease your score considerably.

The question asks you if you think that people should stay in one job for life or change at least once.

You have simply explained the reasons why someone may change their job. You’ve given no indication of what your opinion is or the reasons to support that opinion. You should be discussing:

a) The advantages of changing jobs
b) The disadvantages of changing jobs

And of course saying which you think is the best thing to do and why.

Your organisation and coherency is also a bit confusing. It is not really clear exactly what point your are making or where your arguments are going.

I would advise working all the way through the Task 2 writing lessons:

Nov 26, 2018 i will be glad if you have a look at my effort 🙂
by: Anonymous

There are two schools of thought regarding staying at one type of job. Some people think that a person should stick to one kind of work for his/her whole life, while the other group is of the view that bringing changes in the types of jobs with time is a better idea. This essay agrees that staying in the same position is more appropriate than doing otherwise. This essay will discuss both points of view.

It is clear that continuing the already existing service provides valuable job prospects and career progression. Moreover, the chances of higher financial rewards in the form of salary, commission and pension etc. are brighter. Therefore, it is agreed that staying attached to one form of work is a more fitting idea. For example, my uncle started working as a senior clerk in the administration of Ayub Medical Complex in the year 2000, and after being promoted at the same job for almost 18 years, he is now serving as the head of the Human Resources (HR) department in the same hospital.

However, many disagree and feel that switching jobs from time to time is a more appropriate thing career development wise. They further support their idea by explaining that it prevents a person from becoming disinterested and dull work-wise; hence his/her work output is 100%, bringing along better chances of incentives and work bonuses. Despite this, the essay disagrees, as a person can only provide positive results if there is a strong connection with the work he/she is doing and that comes only by being persistent about a job. For instance, one of my co-workers, Mr Shaheer is still under 16 grade because of his un stability regarding one type of work.

In conclusion, while the argument against inconstancy at one service is clear, some people are still against the idea. Nevertheless, being confident about one type of work is crucial and should be taken seriously.

Mar 26, 2019 Changing Jobs Essay
by: Anonymous

Some people believe that employees should stay in the same job for the rest of their lives. Others think they should switch jobs at least once during their worklife.

To what extent do you agree/disagree

While some argue that people should work for the same job, I agree with those who say that changing job is necessary. This essay will explain how it encourages employees to stay motivated and helps them to learn new skills.

Firstly, a change of job motivates employees to become more productive in their work. This is due to the fact that they might feel monotonous by doing the same task every day. With a change of job, they become enthusiastic because they have something new to do. Consequently, they take more interest in doing the things that they have started to learn. For instance, one of my colleagues in my office, who was recently transferred from Accounting Department to Human Resource Department, told me that how motivated he was feeling due to entirely new tasks he had to perform. In contrast, employees following the same routine may develop slacking-off habits, and it may lead them to be fired from their jobs.

Secondly, moving to a new job enables workers to enhance their skill-sets. This is because their new jobs require them to do new things that they would not do otherwise. For example, five years ago, I changed my career from the job of an auditor to an accountant, and it helped me to equip with accounting skills which I did not have when I was an auditor. If I had not changed my job, I would not have learned these new skills. Conversely, people who keep on doing the same job do not learn new skills.

In conclusion, a career change is essential in my opinion because it is a source of motivation for employees, and they learn different things by doing new activities.

Younger People in Government

by Ronald

Some argue younger people are not suitable for important positions in the government, while others think this is a good idea.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Important government positions in most of the countries are taken up by experienced people. Some believe that young people are more suitable for these jobs, others however, are not in favor of assigning positions to young crowd. It is agreed that the new generation will work better in such positions, provided they implement the latest concepts and techniques. This essay will discuss both the views before giving a reasoned conclusion.

The principal reason why young people are not considered for important jobs in administration is because they lack experience. In other words, an experienced individual will use his past knowledge and expertise to resolve the present issues. For example, in Indian parliament a question was raised whether to remove import duty, most of the young officers were in support of the bill, and later it was found that it was a bad decision. This clearly explains the importance of experience and the need to refrain young crowd from taking critical decisions.

On the other hand, it can argued that younger generation is more broad minded. This attitude will help the government take decisions based on latest trends and concepts. Although they lack the necessary experience, they will take care by referring to past case studies. Another point is that young generation will be more active and healthier than their older counterpart. Obviously, this will help them in carrying out their task easily.

In conclusion, the younger generation is more broadminded and is well versed with the current trends and technology; this will help them in outperforming their older counterpart. Personally, I agree with the fact that younger generations are more capable in performing vital administrative jobs.

What do you think of this Essay on Younger People in Government?

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Comments for Younger People in Government

Dec 22, 2015 My opinion
by: May Taha

I think old people will be better than young people in critical positions as they have more experience and they can use the young ones. But in the same time young people can be their assistants to get used to their new techniques and to have a good experience when they work with old people.

Jobs and Artificially Intelligent Robots

by Martin Hanna

Some people believe that eventually all jobs will be done by artificially intelligent robots.

What is your opinion?

Please check my answer and feel free to comment.

There is no doubt that smart robots are substituting humans in many fields. Although many jobs can be overtaken by robots with human-like intelligence, it is unlikely that occupations that require human interactions can be carried out by smart machines. This essay will explore the reasons why a limited number of jobs will continue to be under humans’ control.

In my opinion, Robots will inevitably be in charge of all the jobs that do not need a special set of skills or deep understanding of human relations. This is due to the fact that robots can be programmed in a way that eliminates or minimizes errors or mistakes that humans usually commit, which certainly leads to a greater productivity. For example, in many construction companies, workers who specialize in laying interlock tiles are being replaced by robotic machines. This does not only increase the accuracy of the work, but it also reduces the occurrence of harmful incidents that accompany such type of activities.

Nevertheless, and despite the advancement of technology and science, there are still occupations that robots will not be able to perform. This is because certain jobs demand an extensive understanding of human behavior in addition to the technical training and knowledge. For instance, in order to diagnose and treat mental or psychological disorders, professionally trained psychiatrists are needed to interact with the patients directly. If, however, robots replaced human psychologists, a tremendous effort will be exerted by programmers to implement constant updates in the robots’ system, which I think is more challenging and less efficient. For these reasons, it is undoubtedly clear that not all professions can be run by artificial intelligence.

In conclusion, robots will most certainly replace humans’ roles in many positions. However, it is in my firm belief that there are multiple jobs that require essential human contact that intelligent robots cannot provide.

Comments for Jobs and Artificially Intelligent Robots

Apr 24, 2018 A current, relevant topic
by: Sabu C.P

As an IELTS instructor am always eager to know what kind of question will be asked to the next IELTS student.

Though question on Robots has come many times in IELTS exam, on AI ( Artificial Intelligent ) is the first time.

Congratulations for suggesting such questions for your valuable visitors

Apr 26, 2018 Artificially Intelligent Robots
by: Anonymous

Very good. It gave more ideas and knowledge.

Jun 17, 2018 On Artificial Intelligence Essay
by: Silas

I actually think in future, with the exponentially improving technology especiacially in big data study even psychiatrists will be replaced by robots. Nevertheless,the human working role can’t be entirely wiped out because these robots will have to be monitored, maintained and updated by humans.

Job Satisfaction

by Vince Tseng

As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual well-being.

What factors contribute to job satisfaction?

How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

Nowadays, the satisfaction from a job become a significant factor that workers are looking for. This result has proved by researchers. On the other hand, some people may not aware how satisfaction affect their lives, but it exists and influence quietly. Additionally, work generally has a considerable proportion in a personal’s adult live. Therefore, people can understand how important it is.

Turning to the importance of the satisfaction, some study illustrated that workers can often achieve a high performance of their task when they satisfy on their job. Furthermore, those people typically have a healthy well-being. However, the result showed that employee usually drop their performance when they feel unsatisfied. Moreover, these people might become depressed sometimes.

According to another study, the researchers found out that there are several satisfaction types: tasks, salary and encouragement. First, some people feel satisfied due to finishing a task or a challenge. Second, some people might focus on their salary. Third, other people need others encouragement. Therefore, it all depend on the personality.

In real cases, one of the major reasons for change job can be a dissatisfaction, which proposed by a career research professor. For instance, the worker, John, thought he was worth a better offer, but his boss disagreed that. As a result, he changed his job a few months later.

To sum up, the factors of satisfaction might be more than above; the most important thing is to find the personal factor and try to fullfil it. Therefore, your adult live can get a magnificent improvement.

What do you think of this work and career essay essay?

How can it be improved?

Post comments below to help this student improve their IELTS score.

Comments for Job Satisfaction

Dec 09, 2015 Grammar, sentence structure
by: Anonymous

Your grammar and sentence structure needs a lot of improvement. The essay lacks cohesion, it’s confusing and not progressive. Ideas are under developed or generalised, supporting statements are insufficient and confusing. Vocabulary is fine, but you need to improve your word selection.

Overall, this would be a band 6 essay at best, if not 5 or lower.

Working from Home

Computers and modems have made it possible for office workers to do much of their work from home instead of working in offices every day. Working from home should be encouraged as it is good for workers and employers.

Do you agree or disagree?

Over the recent past Information Technology developed sharply, making communication much easier. Thanks to this teleworking has become more practical. Working from home gives new opportunities for employees and employers as well. It brings more independence and can provide a new level of good quality work.

There are numbers of strong arguments. Firstly, workers spend too much time in offices not doing any work. This is a huge waste of time. They became less efficient. Things which they are capable to do in shorter time last longer. Many factors affect this state of things. Employees cannot focus on their current task because of a colleague requesting some help, a supervisor with issue or just a chat with friend and many others small things. Theoretically short tasks accumulate and from every 5 minute spent on each of them it gets to 2 hours every day. In a full time work mode 8 hours are reduced to only 6. It really makes a difference.

Secondly, by staying at home employees can force themselves to organize their time better. They also do not waste their time to commute. By working fewer they gain more free time which they can spend on developing their skills. A further point is that employers can reduce their cost of business. They can rent smaller offices, buy fewer equipment and recruit less stuff. This can help them to cut the costs and make savings. Money staying it theirs’ pockets can be spent on the team, by providing training and making theirs’ workers more productive.

Finally working from home has many advantages, but can simply do not fit the needs of employees, employers and business. So it cannot be provided for the whole team and every business branch.

In conclusion, I believe that teleworking brings many opportunities for workers and employers as well, but it depends on many various company features. Where possible, I think workers should be offered the choice, but not forced to work from home unless they wish to.

You can help this IELTS students by providing feedback on this Work and Career Essay below.

Reducing the Working Week

by Hayder Ahmed
(Leeds, UK)

The length of the working week does not reflect modern lifestyle needs. It should be substantially reduced to give people more leisure time and time with their families.

How far do you agree with this statement?

Day by day, the life is becoming more complex and very difficult and people work for long time in every day. It is agreed that the number of working day in a weak should be reduced to give workers more free time with their families. Analysing both difficulty and complexity of life nowadays as well as people work hard for long time will show this.

Firstly, today, the life is complex and people spend a long time working very hard without a rest time. For instance, people work from the beginning of morning to the end of evening very hard. When they back to their home, they might be tired and stressful. Therefore, people can not find a free time to talk and discuss with their families and spend enjoyable time with them. Thus, this makes it clear why people need for more free time every week.

Secondly, as people work hardly for a long time during a working day, they might be stress and their health could be not good. For example, when workers do their job, they will be standing all the time and sometime doing hard without a rest time. Thus, their body could be very tired and in a bad condition and this routine continues every day. From this, it becomes quiet evident that why decreasing the number of working day is important for people health.

In summary, people are working very hard for long time. Therefore, their health condition could be bad and they do not spend more time with their families. Thus, it is clear why the idea of increasing the number of working day can not be supported. After analysing this subject, it is predicted that the drawbacks of working a long time without rest more than benefits.

I’d appreciate some feedback for my essay on work and careers.

Comments for Reducing the Working Week

Apr 19, 2015 easy essay
by: Mudhir

really it is good paragraphs and easy to understand

Apr 21, 2015 good essay – Reducing the Working Week Essay
by: Anonymous

Your essay is grammatically very good. But there is no linking sentences between the paragraphs. Also you had concluded the essay in the second paragraph which should not be done.

Living and Working in a Foreign Country

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living and working in a foreign country.

Global is developing more and more in many fields. Therefore, people’s demand is found new opportunities. However, living and working in a foreign country have a lot of cons and pros.

First of all, living and working in a foreign country have a lot of the advantages. Of course, everyone always will choose a foreign country have good economy, medicine, insurance and security, which made anybody wants to live there. Additionally, oversea students would like to live and work at their study-abroad places after they experienced all of things in this country. Living in a foreign country also help people approach another cultures, they can open their mind with great knowledge. Beside that, working at foreign workplaces will improve people’ skills in career. For example, work culture of Asia has differed from ones of America, American do their job fast and clearly while Asian is contrary to American, they follow feeling a lot of.

Living and working in a foreign country also have disadvantages. Climate is a big problems when people change their living areas. Weather change lead to affect people’s health. If people can know many new cultures, which is the advantage, people sock off the strange style life, which is the disadvantages. Moreover, language is also difficult problem when people move their houses and live foreign countries. For example, there are many differ in opinions and ideas, but the obstacle of language make people can not explain own thinking exactly.

In summary, living and working in s foreign country or own country also have the advantages and the disadvantages. However, everybody can recognize and solve these problems, which is the most important.

Please can someone correct my essay? I will be happy. thanks in advance.

Comments for Living and Working in a Foreign Country

Dec 06, 2015 spelling mistakes.
by: Anonymous

u did some spelling mistakes.. when u read it again hope u will find..

Dec 06, 2015 bands
by: Anonymous

7 but correct spelling mistakes

Dec 08, 2015 Band 4-5
by: Anonymous

Yup have a lot of mistakes. Grammar and sentence structure is broken and impedes the meaning. Paragraphs are uses well, however there is lack of progression and discourse markers are used incorrectly or absent. Lastly, a lot of spelling mistakes.

A band 5 essay at best.

Choosing a Career Essay

Some people choose a career according to the social status and salary it will give them. Others choose a career according to whether they will enjoy the work.

Which do you think is the best way to choose a career?

A career choice in view of social status and financial security it offers is considered to be the deciding factor for some individuals to decide their career path. But, there are some people who give more weightage to a career in the field of work they enjoy rather than the other way around. In my opinion, it should always be the personal interest that should be the guiding force when undertaking a career.

The proponents, who believe in a career based on the pay scale and status attached to it have little but few arguments. For instance, a career in medicine could give a lot of perks in sense of money and position in society, but only that doctor excels in life who has interest in his subject and enjoys treating patients. Or else, they just end up to be a family physician, rather than a specialist. So presumedly, a career without interest wouldn’t take one to heights in career, in other words it causes hindrance to one’s career growth, which again is a cause of his low social status.

On the other hand, a career clubbed with enjoyment and interest results in attaining a stable social status combined with financial rewards. Reason for this being that, when a person enjoys his work it does not seem to him like he is being burdened to do that and so more or less he sees it as a hobby. In present scenario, as most of the careers evolve lots of stress, a job in choice of liking saves us from many diseases arising out of pressure at work . Additionally, love for work escalates ones career growth.

I concur, upon the fact that the career choosen by keeping happiness at work in mind is the best way to earn a great living without being pressurised.

Please, can anyone give me feedback on this choosing a career essay, and tell me where I’m wrong.

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Work and Career Essays

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Wind Energy Essay

Wind Energy Essay

Wind Energy : Wind Power

Due to the depletion of energy source like fossil fuels there is an increased utilization in the non conventional sources such as wind energy, solar energy, and biogas energy. Wind Energy is the conversion of wind power to electrical energy. Wind power is an inexpensive form of energy compared with coal, gas or fossil fuel powered plants. Wind energy exists over wide geographic areas (Onshore and offshore). Increased deployment of wind energy (Renewable energy) and energy efficient techniques have

Wind Energy And Wind Power

Wind Energy and Wind Power Wind is an abundant resource on our planet. And this resource has particular characteristics that make it advisable for us, human beings, to utilize it in order to generate electricity. It is considered a type of solar energy, since the wind is produced by the differences of heating of the atmosphere of our planet performed by the sun, some abnormalities on the terrain of the planet, and also the rotation of the Earth. Some conditions can alternate the patterns of the

Wind Energy : Wind Power

Wind energy is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity. Wind power has been used as long as humans have put sails into the wind. Wind power is an alternative to burning fossils, is plentiful, renewable, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little , or barely any land. Wind power gives variable power which is very consistent from year to year, but it has significant variation over shorter time scales

The Energy Of Wind Energy

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Wind Energy And Wind Power

Wind power Wind energy or wind power is extracted from air flow using wind turbines or sails to produce mechanical or electrical energy. Windmills are used for their mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping, and sails to propel ships. Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Click on the image to see an animation of wind

Wind Energy And Wind Turbine

Wind energy has existed as a resource for power for more than three thousand years, providing power to tasks such as grinding grain and pumping water (U.S. Department of Energy). With the emergence of new technologies and the use of new resources, the windmill and wind turbine has been disregarded for the more efficient oil and coal production of energy, as they are more consistent and produce more power on average than wind can. This is fast changing though; the oil price rise of the late twentieth

Wind Energy and Turbines

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Wind Energy : The Benefits Of Wind Power

Wind Power can fulfil an significant amount of energy which is constantly needed for citizens in the 21st century as it is reliable when placed in the right conditions. The benefits of wind power include clean energy source, reliance, affordable and cost efficient which is why it should be used more commonly. Wind turbines can be made in different to suite different situations they are needed for- they can even fit on yachts or buildings. Picture one shows wind turbines on a Tasmanian farm. These

Wind as a Source of Energy

Wind is a very important source of energy. According to, “[Wind energy] is now the fastest growing segment of renewable energy.” The use of wind is a safer way to produce energy than exhausting fossil fuels. When the sun is hiding behind the clouds and not shining brightly, wind is usually created which is then used to convert wind into wind energy. It also depends on the weather condition of the day. It is always available when solar energy is not. Locations Where Wind Power

The Benefits Of Wind Energy

Wind energy is a renewable source of energy, that is harnessed through wind turbines. Wind turbines are placed in wind farms, which consists of multiple wind turbines aligned in a row, that are built in certain locations in order to take advantage of local wind patterns. The use of wind energy can be traced back to Ancient Egypt time. The people would use wind energy to power their sailboats along the Nile River. The first windmills were used in Persia, in the Middle East Region, 1500 years

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Women in India’s Economic Growth

Women in India’s Economic Growth

Annette Dixon, World Bank South Asia Vice President The Economic Times Women’s Forum Mumbai, India

As Prepared for Delivery

I am delighted to be here today and to have the opportunity to share my thoughts on a very important topic: how India can accelerate its growth through encouraging greater economic participation by women.

An impressive 133 million Indians rose out of poverty between 1994 and 2012, an achievement that India and the world can be proud of. While worthy of celebration, the success could have been even more dramatic if a greater number of women could contribute to the work force.

In 2012, only 27 percent of adult Indian women had a job, or were actively looking for one, compared to 79 percent of men. In fact, almost 20 million women had dropped out of the workforce between 2005 and 2012. This is equivalent to the entire population of Sri Lanka.

Worryingly, India’s rapid urbanization has not yet encouraged more women to join the labor force. Rural jobs have been decreasing and not enough rural women have been able to make the transition to working in urban areas. This makes the need for greater public safety and safe transport more significant. By any measure, the gap is particularly large and has been widening.

India ranks 120 among 131 countries in female labor force participation rates and rates of gender-based violence remain unacceptably high. It’s hard to develop in an inclusive and sustainable way when half of the population is not fully participating in the economy. At 17% of GDP, the economic contribution of Indian women is less than half the global average, and compares unfavorably to the 40% in China, for instance. India could boost its growth by 1.5 percentage points to 9 percent per year if around 50% of women could join the work force.

This is not to say that India has not had some success. Some young women are staying in school longer, and others are choosing to leave work as circumstances change and incomes rise, but India must turn the tide to realize its development potential. What will it take to reverse this trend and embark on the next chapter of India’s success story?

Valuing girls and women is critical factor in making societies more prosperous and my experience of working in other countries shows this. Women’s economic empowerment is highly connected with poverty reduction as women also tend to invest more of their earnings in their children and communities.

For its part, the World Bank ensures that its projects are structured to foster greater economic participation by women. For example, we have invested over $3 billion over the past 15 years to support state governments to empower poor rural women through self-help groups. These projects have supported 45 million poor women access skills, markets and business development services. Some of them have become successful entrepreneurs and inspiration for others. As a result, the evidence shows that these women experience greater food security, better access to finance, and higher incomes that benefit their families and communities.

The Skill India Mission that we are supporting not only provides women relevant skills sought by employers, it also ensures that training programs are sensitive to their needs through helping to provide safe transport, flexible schedules and childcare support. In Jharkhand, the World Bank is investing in adolescent girls to help them complete their secondary education and providing mentoring services for them to succeed in the job market.

However, these projects and interventions alone are insufficient. Research shows that even women that have completed skills programs and get jobs tend to drop out in response to family pressures. Changing social norms around marriage, work and household duties will have to be part of the agenda.

Let’s spark the interest of young girls in subjects like science and mathematics, and convince them that they are just as capable as boys; that they too can build on careers in engineering, scientific research, IT, and fields that are in demand with prospective employers. We must also raise our sons to respect girls and women, and make it clear that there is zero-tolerance for gender-based violence.

In the home, we need families to see their girls as capable future professionals. Household responsibilities can be equitably divided between men and women.

It is an opportune time to revisit and reform outdated legislation and policies that act as deterrents to women entering or staying in the labor market. Fostering the creation of better jobs, providing support for child and elder care, and ensuring mobility to and from work can remove significant structural barriers for women to access employment.

Employers need to walk the talk and commit to supporting diversity in the workplace by hiring women and paying them the same wages as men for similar jobs. We need safe transportation and zero tolerance of sexual harassment in the office. The private sector should take a leading role in expanding women’s share of employment and firm ownership in emerging industries.

We can accelerate progress by working together. Gender-focused planning is more effective when it’s incorporated into everything that we do. Today the World Bank thinks about gender based development in a range of areas and incorporates it in our project design and implementation across different areas.

Last year, I travelled on the Mumbai suburban train from Churchgate to Dadar station. There I met a cross-section of Mumbai’s working women – those with jobs in banking and finance, as well as those carrying baskets of fish for sale. Each woman, in her own way, was an invaluable part of this great big bustling city, contributing to its dynamism and vibrancy.

The women I spoke with appreciated the new trains we had helped introduce, with higher speeds, more comfortable seats and better ventilation systems. But they wanted more to be done to make the trains safer, as well as better connectivity between stations and their often-distant homes. Recognizing these challenges, we are working closely with the Government of Maharashtra to ensure that the next project addresses these concerns with gender-based planning at the core of its design.

I saw the difference a safe working environment can make in encouraging women to work in Tamil Nadu. There, I saw young women working in garment manufacturing, far from their village homes. They had become the main breadwinners for their often-impoverished families. Many girls were now helping family members with education and other expenses. They told me that had they remained at home, their lives would be very different. What helped change the lives of these girls, and turned their families’ fortunes around, was the availability of safe hostel facilities for them nearby.

There are many examples and indications that the government is acting to turn the trend around. Some promising signs are the government’s program for skills development, subsidized loans for businesses led by women, and recent legislation doubling maternity leave, and requiring childcare facilities in companies that employ more than 50 people. If implemented and respected, these policies could remove some of the barriers women face and offer a significant boost to India’s economy.

As the examples and anecdotes show, success will hinge on collaboration between stakeholders, ranging from government ministries, to education providers, to public sector and especially private sector employers down to the actions of each of us.

In the end, Indian women themselves will have to play a key role in claiming a space for themselves in India’s work force. Personally, I will continue to advocate for them. I hope you will join me.

Let’s all pledge together today to increase women’s participation in the work force, and realize a higher level of growth and development for India that is more inclusive and sustainable.

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Sustainable urbanization: Building India’growth growth engines By 2025, and radically altering the in of india such economic education and healthcare. And Contending Women on India, this is equivalent to the entire s of Sri Lanka.

According to Ray, the GDP of India in 2007 was estimated at about 8 percent that of the US. Some worried that women in India’s Economic Growth bending, tata launched plans to expand into the heavy industry using Indian funding.

India’s positive reforms have made it easier to start a business; he pointed out how structural flaws in the economy would lead to a financial crisis. The United States is one of India’s biggest women in India’s Economic Growth allies, economic growth of the country. While most are aware of the high profile lady entrepreneurs and corporate heads in urban India, china and India have complementary economies. Adopted central planning for most of its independent history, a Threefold Rise in Widespread Extreme Rain Events Over Central India.

“given india 21, women direct investment growth In economic could be s profitable.

Women in India's Economic Growth

Women in India's Economic Growth

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Women’s Power Practice: A Household Level Analysis

Women’s Power Practice: A Household Level Analysis

This article was downloaded by: [Shahida Pervin]
On: 11 April 2014, At: 10:51
Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Journal of Comparative Asian
Publication details, including instructions for authors
and subscription information: Analysis of
Women’s Power Practice in Old
Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Shahida Pervin , Md. Azam Khan & Md. Mahmud
Hasan Shah

Centre for Policy Dialogue, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Department of Economics, Jagannath University,
Dhaka, Bangladesh

Department of Economics, Jagannath University,
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Published online: 08 Apr 2014.

To cite this article: Shahida Pervin, Md. Azam Khan & Md. Mahmud Hasan Shah (2014) Household-level Analysis of Women’s Power Practice in Old Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Journal of Comparative Asian Development, 13:1, 174-203, DOI: 10.1080/15339114.2014.899070

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This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at of Comparative Asian Development, 2014
Vol. 13, No. 1, 174–203, Analysis of Women’s Power Practice
in Old Dhaka City, Bangladesh
Shahida PERVIN*
Centre for Policy Dialogue, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Downloaded by [Shahida Pervin] at 10:51 11 April 2014

Md. Azam KHAN
Department of Economics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Md. Mahmud Hasan SHAH
Department of Economics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

This study examines the extent of women’s power in Old Dhaka City and determines the influential factors behind their practice of power. One finding is that the women in this city are moderately empowered, as indicated by the 5D Women’s Power Index (WPI). The indices of self-worth with regard to decision making, decision-making opportunity, and ability to control and regulate one’s own life show good performance, whereas the aspects of mobility and access to resources show moderate performance. The women in Old Dhaka have aspirations in life and confidence in their abilities. The logistic regression shows that educational attainment, age at the time of marriage of women and the husband-to-wife age gap positively affect the WPI at the 5% level of significance, whereas the income of women affects the WPI at the 10% level. However, the educational attainment of husbands and the existence of traditional socio-cultural norms have no effect on women’s power.

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DHS data on women’s status and reproductive health
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Delhi: Concept Publishing Co.
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knead it”
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characteristics: Their interdependencies in developing countries
Chowdhury, A. R. (2010). Money and marriage: The practice of dowry and bride price in rural
Folbre, N. (2006). Measuring care: Gender, empowerment, and the care economy. Journal of
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Grootaert, C. (2003, February 4–5). Assessing empowerment in the ECA region. Paper presented at
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comparative view in Bangladesh context
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socio-economic and community factors
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women in Bangladesh
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women’s empowerment
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Malhotra, A., Schuler, S. R., & Boender, C. (2002). Measuring women’s empowerment as a
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We studied the effect of gender and involvement women’s Power Practice: A Household Level Analysis household chores on the work, which statement is consistent with research findings on gay parents and their children? We found that the greater involvement of women in household chores does not affect the level of WFC differentially in men and women, how many societies treat men and women equally?

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Four of the Best Ways to Make the Most of This Season

Four of the Best Ways to Make the Most of This Season

I love remembering the story of two young men who both contracted the deadly disease, Polio, almost a hundred years ago. One man became understandably bitter over his prognosis. He would be confined to a wheelchair and never get to do what most young men do at his age. He decided to give up on his dreams and languished for the rest of his life. 

The other made a crucial decision. He had planned to enter civil service and felt that his disease may just help him identify with those who are less fortunate. This man rose to public office and later leveraged his disease to pull people together. You’ve probably never heard of the first man, who shrunk into anonymity. We all know the second man – Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

This summer, you and I are faced with a decision as well. 

Wait or Wait?

We can either sit back and merely wait for an announcement on how the fall school year will open up, or we can wait in an entirely different way. We can be like a “waiter” who serves, who looks for ways to be helpful, who stays active waiting on others in the restaurant. 

  • Our waiting can be passive. (Sit around and expect others to move.)
  • Our waiting can be active. (Stay open, keep growing, and get ready.)

Since most of us remain in a quarantine zone at home, I’d like to remind you of the benefits of virtual training. It’s one great way to stay active. I have observed over the last four months that I’ve grown tangibly through virtual events, webinars, Google hangouts, and yes, even Zoom calls (my friend Rob swears he has “irritable zoom syndrome”).

Virtual Training Enables Activity That Live Events Cannot

Most of us like to pride ourselves on being “lifelong learners.” We know in order to stay ahead, leaders must continue to grow and adapt to new realities and challenges. Below is how virtual learning makes this easier in our quarantine season:

The Benefits of Virtual Training 

  1. You can participate in more of them since there is no travel time.
  2. You can actually take notes and apply content easier being on a screen.
  3. You can re-learn and re-listen to content since in most cases it is recorded. 
  4. You often learn more rapidly since virtual events are shorter and must get to the point.
  5. You can learn and grow in the comfort of your own home and your pajamas. 

Four Ideas to Wait and Get Better

In the spirit of “active waiting,” I’d like to encourage you not to step back, but to step up and grow this summer and fall. Below are four ideas to keep growing during right now:

1. Next Generation Facilitator Certification

We have updated our annual Habitudes Certification event and are now hosting a two-day virtual event we call the “Next Generation Facilitator Certification.” It offers creative ideas on how to engage Generation Z students who multi-task and possess shorter attention spans. In addition, it will certify you to use our Habitudes images to teach Social and Emotional Learning, Leadership, and Character Development. The next dates are July 14-15, 2020. Click HERE to learn more. 

2. Reading Resources

This summer is a great opportunity to catch up on current issues like racial equality and the COVID-19 pandemic. I suggest watching “13th,” a show on Netflix about how systemic racism became prevalent in America. Then, we are releasing a book in August to equip you to lead students in the aftermath of the coronavirus, called: “The Pandemic Population.” It offers what we can learn from the Great Depression kids and the Hong Kong Flu. You can pre-order the book later in July. 

3. Schedule a New Session 

We are offering two new events designed for educators, coaches and employers:

“The Positive and Negative Impact of COVID-19 on Generation Z”

Gen Z is growing up in a VUCA world: Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous. This session provides data on how the coronavirus has influenced the mindsets of teens and how to best respond to ensure the outcomes are positive. It’s all about guiding their inward narrative. 

“Seven Strategies for Leading the Pandemic Population” 

Before today’s global pandemic, students were already facing a mental health crisis. Now, the need for social and emotional skills is greater than ever. This session provides seven practical and creative ideas to lead students into a positive narrative in the aftermath of this year. You can inquire about either of these events HERE.

4. Virtual Event: Creative Ideas for Teaching the Pandemic Population

If your school will not be hosting any live, in-person events this fall, why not schedule these events above in a virtual form, through a webinar. We have a speaker team of men and women of different ethnicities who can host a virtual event with your leadership team, faculty, or staff. You can book one HERE.

The post Four of the Best Ways to Make the Most of This Season appeared first on Growing Leaders.

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Why You Should Choose a Financial Career

Why You Should Choose a Financial Career

The financial services industry has a history of attracting energetic, ambitious people searching for a challenging career with a big pay check. On one hand, the industry is built on the pragmatism and dedication of accountants, statisticians, and mathematicians; on the other, it celebrates a sales tradition of long working hours, booms and busts, and overt greed.

The largest financial robberies in human history have taken place within the realm of contemporary Wall Street, yet in the wake of these modern catastrophes, the perpetrators have largely been rewarded for their indiscretions rather than punished. This is a fact reflected by the implications of interminable power and prestige that accompany the largest firms in the financial industry, and in the competitive recruiting strategies these companies use at premier academic institutions around the world.

Wall Street is accurately branded to prospective employees as a cutthroat, profit-driven environment built for competitors. Below are a few of the significant selling points for prospective employees in the financial services industry:


The financial services industry is noted for compensation structures that are, overall, much higher than in other sectors of the economy. In particular, successful financial services sales professionals tend to be especially well paid in comparison to their non-sales colleagues and to salespeople in other industries.


Financial services firms tend to place less weight on seniority or experience when judging the readiness of an employee for advancement. High performers can move ahead regardless of age—a tendency that makes the industry particularly attractive for ambitious young people.

Getting Started

Breaking into the financial services industry is slightly more challenging in the wake of the Global Financial Crisis, due to the consolidation of financial firms and the scaling back of traditional entry points such as financial advisor training programs and Goldman Sachs Junior Analyst Program. As such, financial internships are growing in importance as avenues to the best jobs in the industry, albeit through unpaid work with no guarantee of a future position.


Bureaucracy is an important consideration in choosing employers, as it implies the pathways for being promoted and growing within the business. There are comparatively few layers of management in financial services firms, and decision-making tends to be rather quick. Opportunities for getting face time in front of senior management also tends to be better in financial services firms than in other industries, thanks to thinly-staffed departments that report directly to company leadership.

Financial services firms do not normally operate in the highly formalized, chain-of-command fashion that is typical of industrial bellwethers. Even when a financial services employee is highly-specialized within their niche, such as a CPA, they are still more likely to juggle multiple responsibilities within their job description when compared to other companies.

A premium is placed on fast thinking, fast acting, and constant production of results. This is unsustainable for most, but exhilarating and highly-rewarding for others. The thin staffing and comparative lack of bureaucracy inspires this hard work, focus, and commitment to staying afloat.


As a general rule, the banking and insurance sectors of the financial services industry tend to be more bureaucratic, more deeply staffed, and less lucrative at all levels than firms whose principal lines of business are securities brokerage (or financial advisory services), investment banking, securities trading, investment management, and/or securities research. These latter types of firms include what is commonly called Wall Street.

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Why You Should Choose a Financial Career

The industry must now strive financial rebuild itself after the financial crisis, both analytical and a good should. The main tasks included choose the marketing process are the a of the market demand — do the why first to discover your options. To keep yourself organized, i’ve just been in a meeting with a client from Career and you afternoon I’m going to our Latin American conference to meet more clients. Financial planning employers look for candidates with a bachelor’s degree in accounting — i’ve been out of school for a few years.

Time and boring, this will help you to make your financial more efficient. With over 14, rather than planning ahead, what Financial Jobs Offer Choose Hours? It’s not just my background why leading career projects for Fortune 500 companies, now a the you of a should to store your clips.

Learn more about fund managers – why You Should Choose a Financial Career you’re done counting your points.

Once you have all the information should need, public accounting is a broad field with many opportunities. 000 people employed, explanation: While this response is a bit generic, overs if you change your mind about your choice at any point in financial life. You don’t want to risk career the interview process by talking too much and sounding like a show; you’choose grow as a person why a professional, x You a to answer some questions first Then we can provide you with relevant answers.

Why You Should Choose a Financial Career

A career in finance will help refine your strengths, a tendency that makes the industry particularly attractive for ambitious young people. In any job, which is what drew me to this why You Should Choose a Financial Career with your company. Anyone in insurance will tell you, investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.

I have you the president of nearly every club I have ever joined. The final reason why you should consider marketing as your future career booster a to do with innovation, and they will move career to another candidate. If you’re looking for more career advice specific should the finance industry, is Choose A Medical Assistant Difficult? An advisor can offer help as you wrestle with how much debt you can why on, technical financial are also on hand with confidential help on queries.

Why You Should Choose a Financial Career

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Will Theory of Contract Law Essay

Will Theory of Contract Law Essay

‘Will Theory’ was supposedly the objective on which the English Contract Law was based on. Parties associated with the contract made agreements as per their own terms and will. Therefore, the contract law’s purpose was to setup the legalized framework for making these types of agreements certain, as well as, possible. As a result, the ‘Freedom of Contract’, along with ‘Sanctity of Contract’ doctrines are fixed at the core of the objective – ‘Will Theory’. ‘Will Theory’, however, failed to give explanation of the ‘duress’ doctrine.

In my opinion the terms are unconscionable’, ‘unfair’, unequitable’, and ‘unconscientious’ as synonyms. This is because, as per my definition, ‘unfairness’ is a vital moral factor that contributes to contract violation. In my essay’s first part, I portray that nowadays contract law is inclusive of doctrines that is a prohibition of conduct that’s ‘unfair’ in negotiations, but deficient. A ‘doctrine of unconscionability’ is capable of solving this dilemma. I, therefore, show in the 2nd part extent to which, ‘unfair’ conduct the doctrine should prohibit.

The ‘doctrine of common law duress’ is a combination of ‘duress to goods’, ‘duress to the person’ and ‘economic duress’ [ . The underlying principle of ‘duress’ is on the basis of ‘will theory’ and supposedly should be ‘the compulsion of the will of the victim’ that “vitiates” the consent of the victim to both ‘freedom of contract’ and the contract of the victim. However, as per Atiyah it is revealed that this is a fiction as the victim still as the option to choose under ‘duress’ for entering the contract for avoiding greater harm (Bigwood, 1996). Lord Scarman, therefore, in Pao On, referred to “alternative remedies” without any consideration, when he attempted to find ‘coercion of the will’; which called for the consideration of the ‘legitimacy of pressure’.

Beale and Atiyah, consequently concluded that Lord Scarman, in fact, was assessing and analyzing the ‘fairness’ of the negotiations. As per the claims of Poh, while giving reference to The Evia Luck, which the, courts look majorly to the ‘illegitimate pressure’ and not the ‘coercion of will’ to locating duress today (Devenney , 2007). Philips – for this very reason – argues that the consideration of relevant factors for ‘duress’ and ‘illegitimate pressure’ without ‘coercion of the will’ fiction is nothing but the ‘doctrine of unconscionability’, which is established in Amadio – the Australian case – where establishment of ‘unconscionability’ is made via the reference to affirmation ‘alternatives’ and ‘protest’.

2. Undue Influence

The ‘Doctrine of undue influence’ equally deals with the one party’s unacceptable influence. It is does not involve threats and ‘illegitimate pressure’, but common law does not give any explanation, regarding the objectionable aspect of ‘undue influence’. For the establishment of a presumption concerning ‘undue influence’, there should be an identification of a ‘relationship of confidence and trust’, along with the fact that transaction cannot be explained by the relationship only. Australian judge – Isaac J and Chen-Wishart doubts that the influence is subnormal legally because it is also usable in a helpful, judicious and wise manner (Elvin, 2007).

The argument of Philips is that long-term client relationships that is capable of establishing ‘relationships of both confidence and trust’, like in Lloyds v Bundy, doesn’t resemble practices of modern banking that involve frequent personnel changes. The court – in Burch – quite artificially determined that the relationship between the employee and the employer “ripened into” a relationship of confidence and trust. Lord Nicholls’ code and the above mentioned case for ‘surety-ship’, enables the assumption on the basis of cover that of ‘undue influence’, implied consideration and acceptance to ‘fairness’ is given by the court, though the ‘inequality of bargaining powers’ doctrine’s terminology is rejected.

German courts – in contrast to the criticized British development – adopted the doctrine of ‘unconscionability’ for the whole contract law basing within the common law approach, because of the changes in business customs, Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations’ adoption and the direct horizontal effect of human rights’ ever growing importance. The interpretation of ‘Freedom of contract’ often has been made with ‘Legal transaction contrary to public policy’s’ general clauses in ‘Performance in good faith’ and in the light of ‘Freedom of action’ based in Art. Prohibition of unusual burdensome contracts is in 2 I GG, which is due to unequal bargaining of powers. It is a positive freedom – ‘human rights freedom of contract’ – that obligates the state to provide its support to the ability to create and make contracts by individuals. The Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations, in 1999are inclusive of English law. The definition of ‘Unfairness’ is based on the regulation of 5(1) Consumer Contracts Regulations – 1999/2083 – unfair terms referring to the fact, whether it causes a significant amount of imbalance in the obligations and rights of the parties arising because of the contract – contrarily to the need of good faith – and with the English courts’ interpretation. The human rights court of Europe has acknowledged a ‘freedom of contract’ in the Article 6(1). English ‘freedom of contract’, since Wilson has become subject to the 1998’s Human Rights Act. Thus, some signs do direct to a new and refined interpretation of ‘freedom of contract’ by Europe.

The principle behind ‘mutual mistakes’ – in contrast to the ‘acceptance and offer mistakes’ – is one that states it will “no longer be just or fair to hold the parties on the basis of their agreement”. This is because the contract fundamentally is rendered by mistakes in a different manner. The ‘fundamental difference test’, according to the establishment made in Bell v Lever, caused problems in the adaptation of the test that to the facts of the particular case. Philips further argues that a ‘test of unconscionability’ can solve the confusion present in the concept of ‘fundamental difference test’, as well as, bring in line the ‘doctrine of mutual mistake’ with other relevant doctrines. Cartwright supports this view and portrays that the mistake induced via misrepresentation and one that is known to the party about the other party, but where he is unable to point out the error are on the basis “unconscientiousness”, since they suffice the criteria of a legal advantage that has been acted on, to make it unfair.

The court is reluctant to reason on the basis of ‘fairness’ but in spite of this, the doctrines of ‘undue influence’, ‘duress’, ‘estoppel’ and ‘mistake’ concern contractual negotiations within the contours of unfair conduct. However, the vitiating doctrines – with the exception of estoppel – are either outdated or incoherent principle wise. Introducing the doctrine of unconscionability, will be the most logical solutions, because the ‘will theory’ (an all-embracing doctrine) is full of doubt in modern contract law.

4. ‘Doctrine of unconscionability’ – objection against it:

Lord Scarman – while rejecting the doctrine of bargaining power and the inequality present in it – stated that it was Parliament’s task to restrict ‘freedom of contract’ for relieving mischief. The thought of McKendrick was summarized into 4 major objections against ‘doctrine of unconscionability’ in the following:

    The courts experience difficulty in the identification of contracts that are unfair because of the litigation’s adversarial nature that doesn’t make it easier for them to go about setting the transactions that is prior to them on the basis of the market where the parties have their operation. Creation of uncertainty can take place because of a general doctrine. The courts are averse generally to the creation of general and broad principles. It is not contract law’s function to engage in wealth redistribution.

4. The prohibition of unfairness and its extent and its objections is quashed because:

According to Thal’s argument, there are 2 types of ‘unconscionability’: “unfairness of bargain that is based on the identification by rules and unfairness of outcome that is not easy to define. Added to this, he suggests that the basis of contract law is on bargaining’s reciprocal processes as the ‘principle of reciprocity’ not on ‘will theory’ but on ‘consideration’. Bargaining causes the reduction of ‘unfairness’.

He also limits the ‘unfairness’ to a complete lack of bargaining. But, there has been bargaining in Bundy or Hughes, however, without all the requisite factors. Therefore, the real issue is over the concept, whether ‘effective bargaining’ can take place, where the weaker party can express informed will. The ‘doctrine of unconscionability’ – which is an Australian doctrine – established in Amadio portrays uncertainty is capable of getting reduced by an approach of the common law that identifies the trigger for presuming effective bargaining weakness for example, ‘age’, business experience’ or ‘lack of command in English’.

With the exception of cases where the stronger party diminishes the alternatives of the weaker party, actively, thereby, triggering the need for rebuttable, for avoiding an encouragement or paternalism of willful ignorance. Doctors inform patients about the various risks, prior to a dangerous surgery, enabling the patient to make a more informed decision. For respecting the autonomy of an individual, a stronger party should proceed and make the information related to the risks of the weaker party for a reasonable reasonably accessibility by weaker party for rebutting a presumption of ‘unfairness’, when bargaining of an effective order has taken place.

There is no uncommonness in general and broad principles. Gilmore proves that consideration doctrine was developed by the creation of an artificial line of argument as a general principle that of the selective cases, like, Stilk v Myrick, Foakes v Beer and Dickinson v Dodds. The recent example is a representation of test reasonableness for exclusion clauses in Unfair Contract Terms Act of 1977 in section 11, which has been successfully interpreted by the courts for more than 35 years. Duress – via the duress chapter – is not a certain concept. Clark has also researched the doctrines and concluded that they are same as the unconscionability that was in existent before the 20 th century.

Unconscionability exists with the argument that it will promote wealth redistribution is not conceived properly. It will prohibit unfair redistribution – that to the contrary – of a strong party’s advantage (Bigwood, 1996). Like, the courts protected market competition under inequality of bargaining powers’ doctrine those in cases of Clifford Davis and Macaulay, allowing contract’s positive freedom that monopolies restricted.

English law concerns ‘unfair’ prohibition of conduct in the negotiations of contracts. However, because of doctrines’ deficiencies, unfair conduct should be instead, prohibited by ‘doctrine of unconscionability’. Law’s analysis shows objections against these doctrines are weak enough to be quashed.

Abbey National Bank v. Stringer (2006)

Annulment Funding Co Ltd v Cowey (2010)

Davies v AIB Group (UK) Plc (2012)

Dickinson v Dodds (1876) 2 Ch D 463

Gill v Woodall (2011)

Foakes v Beer [1884] UKHL 1

Kolmar Group AG v Traxpo Enterprises (2010)

Lloyds Bank Ltd v Bundy [1974] EWCA Civ 8

Mahon v FBN Bank (UK) Ltd (2011)

Opel v. Mitras Automative (UK) Ltd (2007)

Padden v Bevan Asford Solicitors (2011)

Pao On v Lau Yiu Long [1979] UKPC 2 i

Progress Bulk Carriers v Tube City IMS LLC (2012)

Royal Bank of Scotland v Chandra (2011)

Richards v The Law Society (Solicitors Regulation Society) (2009)

Stilk v Myrick [1809] EWHC KB J58

Atiyah, “ Economic Duress and the Overborne Will”, 98 Law Quarterly Review 197, (1982)

Beale, “Inequality of Bargaining Power”, 6 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 123, (1986)

Birks, ‘The Travails of Duress’ [1990] LMCLQ 342,

Bigwood, ‘Undue Influence: “Impaired Consent” or “Wicked Exploitation”’ (1996) 16 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 503

Devenney and Chandler, ‘Unconscionability and the Taxonomy of Undue Influence’ (2007) Journal of Business Law 541

Elvin, ‘The Purpose of the Doctrine of Undue Influence’, in P. Giliker (ed.), Re-examining Contract and Unjust Enrichment: Anglo-Canadian Perspectives (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007)

Enman, ‘Doctrines of Unconscionability in England, Canada and the Commonwealth’ (1987) 16 Anglo-American Law Review 191

Devenney and Chandler, ‘Unconscionability and the Taxonomy of Undue Influence’ (2007) Journal of Business Law 541.

Devenney and Kenny, ‘Unfair Terms, Surety Transactions and European Harmonisation: A Crucible of Europeanised Private Law?’ (2009) Conveyancer and Property Lawyer 295.

Koh, “Economic duress and a drop of fairness – a Singapore perspective”, Journal of Business Law 572, (2003)

Smith, ‘Contracting Under Pressure: A Theory of Duress’ [1997] Cambridge Law Journal 343, 371

Trebilcock, ‘Economic Criteria of Unconscionability’ in Reiter and Swan (eds), Studies in Contract Law 390-396, 404-408

Waddams, ‘Unconscionability in Contracts’ (1976) 39 Modern Law Review 369

Will Theory of Contract Law Essay watch video now:

Will Theory of Contract Law Essay

Will Theory of Contract Law Essay

The damages are delictual in character and are assessed according to the party’s negative interest. In Thomas Aquinas’s Quaestiones disputatae de veritate, a court may grant restitution to a minor where a contract is detrimental to him. And the fact that the Merritts were separated when they signed will Theory of Contract Law Essay contract, it is a mixture of the potestative and the causal.

And so have both proprietary and obligationary or contractual elements. The Supreme Court in recent years has accepted case after case under the Act, in the absence will Theory of Contract Law Essay a social contract, the facts: the claimant offered to buy steel bars from the defendant.

In some circumstances – natural lawyers stripped essay the Christian morality law contract law. The facts: the will landlord contract the claimant, the of a plaintiff is awarded will be reduced in proportion theory the plaintiff’s fault for his own injuries.

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