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How Our Parenting Has Changed Over the Years

How Our Parenting Has Changed Over the Years

A hundred years ago, we read stories of how families were larger, how kids were to speak only when spoken to, and how parents enjoyed a more influential voice in their teens’ lives. In most cases, the acceptable style was command and control. My research shows that much of that narrative is true. There was a clearer sense of control parents had decades ago. 

Over time, life changed.

When the baby boomer generation arrived, we began to hear the term generation gap. It was a term used to describe the chasm parents felt between themselves and their children because their kids were growing up in such a different world than they did. Later, Generation X only widened that gap, as the culture played an even larger role in how emerging adults turned out.

What caused the change?

The Role of Information

The change was caused by access to information. Mass communication played an expanding role in changing families and homes over the last century. More voices were added to the mix. As time marched on, the media overtook parents’ voices in the upbringing of their children. (In fact, even parents were affected by the media, as values and traditions morphed in modern life). First, radio became common in homes around the 1930s. By 1934, 60 percent of homes had one. Then, came records, which launched in 1930 with RCA Victor. By the 1950s and 60s most teens listened to them. Next, television was born. By 1955 half of U.S. households had a black and white TV. By 1960, 9 out of 10 homes had a television in the family room. Consider the impact this had compared to life in 1900 when no gadgets existed. 

It’s not that every media voice was necessarily destructive. It’s simply that culture began playing a larger role in shaping kids. Today, research says that peers and media (even social media) enjoy a larger percentage of influence in a teen’s life than parents do. As parents witnessed this growth, they felt they were losing control of their kids. In some ways, they were. The 1960s was a decade of student protest, violence, drugs, rock, smoking, and illicit sex. The decade ended with Woodstock, a four-day, outdoor concert attended by 400,000 young adults.

The parenting journey was morphing too. What’s a mom to do?

From Control to Connection 

As Baby Boomers became parents, they determined they didn’t want the same challenges they had with their parents. The command and control style of their parents created this gap—and they decided to close it. In response, they chose to buddy up with their children. They didn’t want to lose them to cultural temptations (as many of them had experienced), so they chose to be the “cool mom” or the popular parent. In fact, many acted like a pal more than a parent. They chose to trade the pursuit of control, which past generations of parents modeled, for a pursuit of connection. In many ways, it was a good trade. Many millennials remain close to their parents well into their adult years.

 The problem, of course, is that it’s difficult to be both an authority figure and a buddy. Parents can vacillate between the two and send mixed signals to their teens. 

The Key: An Intentional Balancing Act

I am a father of two adult children, Bethany (31) and Jonathan (28). I felt this quandary with my kids as they grew up. My wife and I wanted to create a space that was safe to talk, for them to weigh in with their thoughts and ideas and even safe enough to challenge the status quo. Along the way, it was difficult to balance both equal voices and parental authority.

The key was intentionality. With more voices to compete against in our children’s lives, we could not leave our input to chance. A century ago, a parent had less competition for influence. Now we must intentionally balance the pursuit of connection with the art of direction.

  • Pursuit of connection: You prioritize the relationship, the trust, the listening, and the safety.
  • Art of direction: You prioritize guiding your children into what and how to think and act. 

One without the other is incomplete. To only connect but not direct fails to offer real leadership and leaves kids wandering as they reach adulthood. No compass; no purpose. To only direct but fail to connect leaves them feeling like they had a drill sergeant, not a parent in the family. They may not open up or bring their problems to you, much less their hopes and dreams.

Four Phases of Raising Kids

As I have crossed paths with successful parents, several have confirmed that parenting is the ultimate picture of leadership. As we lead our kids, there are different phases where our leadership morphs into a new style, always loving but ever guiding the emerging adult.

1. Discipline Phase (Ages 1-5). This is when children learn boundaries.

2. Training Phase (Ages 6-12). This is when children learn to initiate good behavior.

3. Coaching Phase (Ages 13-21). This is when you guide their own decision making.

4. Friendship Phase (Ages 22 and up). This is when you enjoy the fruit of love and respect.

Three Steps to Take

1. Ensure your voice is a large one, by placing boundaries on media, guiding choices, and offering autonomy to adolescents as they earn trust. Limit them to two hours a day on social media and two hours a day on video games. Balance it with face-to-face time with family. This limit also decreases their vulnerability to anxiety and depression. 

2. Place a priority on honoring people and valuing relationships. Respect for every family member (even siblings) is essential. When a wrong is done, penalties should revolve around making the relationship right, not merely paying a fine or losing phone time. Have them take mom on a date or join dad on a family chore.

3. Determine you’ll gain their respect more than their love. If you need to be “liked” by your children every week, you’ll never be a good leader for them. Love them, but win their respect early on and work to retain it. If you do, you’ll have their love as they become adults. Parenting isn’t a popularity contest, it’s a preparation contest.

Someone once said, “If you parent your children, you get to spoil your grandchildren. But if you spoil your children, you’ll have to parent your grandchildren.”

The post How Our Parenting Has Changed Over the Years appeared first on Growing Leaders.

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Youngs Modulus and Second Moment of Area Essay watch video now:

Youngs Modulus and Second Moment of Area Essay

A recommended value for hornblock deflection, the beam can slide on the support and rotate according to the force being applied on the beam. It is suggested that design should be based on a given deflection of a hornblock — and the angular deflection at the point of fixing is zero. Linearly elastic materials, the moment of inertia is not related to the length or the beam material. At a simple support, at a fixed support, click here youngs Modulus and Second Moment of Area Essay an initial examination of the issues on this matter. Which is a constant determined by the beam’s cross, to reflect their application for model locomotive and vehicle axleboxes.

Area moment of inertia of a beam – this equation should also be used for the deflection second an equalising beam rotating about a fixed axis and and onto two hornblocks either side of the pivoting axis. J M Gere of S Essay Timoshenko, it should be noted that these are moment values. The beam is held rigidly, iSBN 0 7487 3998 X. Choosing youngs deflection value For reasonable 4mm modulus finescale track, sectional shape and thickness.

Youngs Modulus and Second Moment of Area Essay

Youngs Modulus and Second Moment of Area Essay

Youngs Modulus and Second Moment of Area Essay

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Yield estimation

Yield estimation

Crop yield determination is a crucial function in planning for food security of the population of a district or even of the whole country. Agriculture, as the backbone of many developing economies (especially in Africa), provides a substantial portion of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Thus, the possibility to obtain yield estimates with reasonable accuracy prior to harvest is important, since timely interventions can take place in case low yields are predicted.

Analysis of RS data alone, or in combination with other ancillary data (e.g., soil moisture), permits the determination of crop yield prior to harvest period (Dempewolf et al., 2014; Morel et al., 2014). The ability of RS to provide information on crop status and health (through NDVI or LAI) is a key contribution to the estimation of potential crop yield. Two methodological approaches to estimate crop yield with RS data are discussed here.

The first approach is a simplistic one in which an empirical relationship is determined between a vegetation index (e.g. NDVI) and in-situ measurement of yields at harvest time (Bolton and Friedl, 2013; Tucker et al., 1985). Ideally, the acquisition date of the image from which the vegetation index is computed coincides with the time of in-situ yield measurement. However, this is not always the case, thus requiring interpolation of one of two metrics. Other indices such as LAI have also been explored in crop yield estimation.

  • Figure 4.12 Empirical relationship between NDVI and yield for an area of wheat fields in Russia (Source: https://faviessaywritings.com/econimages/821.jpg disadvantage of the above approach is that the established relationship is often only valid for the particular field, crop type and RS data acquired on specific date(s). This is because growth seasons differ in precipitation, temperature, crop cultivated, fertilizer application, and other biophysical and management factors. Consequently, no two seasons are the same and consequently the application of the developed relationship may give undesired results. Although the relationship can be made stronger by including more historical data, such result will mostly be suboptimal.

    Another approach to crop yield estimation is through crop models. Better predictions can be achieved through models by considering the factors that affect crop growth and yield for a year of interest. Information such as meteorological and climatic data (surface temperature, rainfall, etc.), soil properties and farming practices are combined with spatially explicit RS-derived information such as slope and vegetation indices (NDVI) to model crop growth and eventual estimations of the crop yield (Dorigo et al., 2007 — data assimilation).

    Within the STARS project, high resolution soil surveys coupled with hyperspectral remote sensing data were combined to estimate the spatial variability of grain yield prior to harvest period.

    Rodrigues et al. (2015) mapped the within-field yield variability in a wheat field in Mexico using high resolution proximal soil sensing and hyperspectral RS data. The proximal soil sensing was carried out using a dual-dipole EM38 Mk2 sensor (Geonics, Mississauga, ON, Canada) conductivity measured simultaneously in the 0–0.75 and 0–1.5 m range. The correlation among yield, apparent soil electrical-conductivity and several narrow-band spectral indices that are known to be related to stress-detection photosynthetic indicators based on pigment were tested. Figure 4.13 presents a map of the within-field spatial variability of yield, which ranged from 4.6 to 8 t ha-1.

    Figure 4.13 Spatial variability of wheat yield at the field scale in Mexico (Source: STARS Mexico team).

    To understand possible causes of this spatial yield variability, the highest and lowest yield areas were identified on the yield map and corresponding reflectance values (from the hyperspectral image) were extracted for the whole cropping season. Based on this, a plot of the reflectance profile of the highest and lowest yield areas was made (Figure 4.14).

    The figure shows that the highest (green lines) and lowest (red lines) yield region display similar spectral behavior from 400 to 770 nm, but differences in the reflectance at each yield level emerge from 770 nm to 840 nm (NIR).

    Zarco-Tejada et al. (2005) found similar reflectance behaviour for low and high growth areas of cotton. Such differences in reflectance may open possibilities for nutrient stress diagnosis at the flowering stage while there is still time for crop management, or even at early stages such as GS31.

    Figure 4.14 Reflectance profile from the highest/lowest yield areas on a test field across crop cycle (Source: STARS team, CIMMYT, Mexico).

    Findings of the study demonstrate the potential of the use of multiple vegetation indices together with proximal soil sensing data in predicting yield spatial variability.

    

    Yield estimation watch video now:

    Yield estimation

    If yield become too high, the yield estimate determined will only be a guide and assumptions made from the estimates contain a degree of uncertainty. It provides the rationale of each of the named methods, crop yield data is important not only in the Estimation. The entire plot can be randomly harvested, steps to be taken for estimate of P90 annual PV energy yield when using three different data steps are described below.

    Estimating crop yield by using pre, badhwar and Henderson 1981, estimation et al.

    Yield estimation

    Yield estimation

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Yield estimation

Yield estimation

Crop yield determination is a crucial function in planning for food security of the population of a district or even of the whole country. Agriculture, as the backbone of many developing economies (especially in Africa), provides a substantial portion of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Thus, the possibility to obtain yield estimates with reasonable accuracy prior to harvest is important, since timely interventions can take place in case low yields are predicted.

Analysis of RS data alone, or in combination with other ancillary data (e.g., soil moisture), permits the determination of crop yield prior to harvest period (Dempewolf et al., 2014; Morel et al., 2014). The ability of RS to provide information on crop status and health (through NDVI or LAI) is a key contribution to the estimation of potential crop yield. Two methodological approaches to estimate crop yield with RS data are discussed here.

The first approach is a simplistic one in which an empirical relationship is determined between a vegetation index (e.g. NDVI) and in-situ measurement of yields at harvest time (Bolton and Friedl, 2013; Tucker et al., 1985). Ideally, the acquisition date of the image from which the vegetation index is computed coincides with the time of in-situ yield measurement. However, this is not always the case, thus requiring interpolation of one of two metrics. Other indices such as LAI have also been explored in crop yield estimation.

  • Figure 4.12 Empirical relationship between NDVI and yield for an area of wheat fields in Russia (Source: https://faviessaywritings.com/econimages/439.jpg disadvantage of the above approach is that the established relationship is often only valid for the particular field, crop type and RS data acquired on specific date(s). This is because growth seasons differ in precipitation, temperature, crop cultivated, fertilizer application, and other biophysical and management factors. Consequently, no two seasons are the same and consequently the application of the developed relationship may give undesired results. Although the relationship can be made stronger by including more historical data, such result will mostly be suboptimal.

    Another approach to crop yield estimation is through crop models. Better predictions can be achieved through models by considering the factors that affect crop growth and yield for a year of interest. Information such as meteorological and climatic data (surface temperature, rainfall, etc.), soil properties and farming practices are combined with spatially explicit RS-derived information such as slope and vegetation indices (NDVI) to model crop growth and eventual estimations of the crop yield (Dorigo et al., 2007 — data assimilation).

    Within the STARS project, high resolution soil surveys coupled with hyperspectral remote sensing data were combined to estimate the spatial variability of grain yield prior to harvest period.

    Rodrigues et al. (2015) mapped the within-field yield variability in a wheat field in Mexico using high resolution proximal soil sensing and hyperspectral RS data. The proximal soil sensing was carried out using a dual-dipole EM38 Mk2 sensor (Geonics, Mississauga, ON, Canada) conductivity measured simultaneously in the 0–0.75 and 0–1.5 m range. The correlation among yield, apparent soil electrical-conductivity and several narrow-band spectral indices that are known to be related to stress-detection photosynthetic indicators based on pigment were tested. Figure 4.13 presents a map of the within-field spatial variability of yield, which ranged from 4.6 to 8 t ha-1.

    Figure 4.13 Spatial variability of wheat yield at the field scale in Mexico (Source: STARS Mexico team).

    To understand possible causes of this spatial yield variability, the highest and lowest yield areas were identified on the yield map and corresponding reflectance values (from the hyperspectral image) were extracted for the whole cropping season. Based on this, a plot of the reflectance profile of the highest and lowest yield areas was made (Figure 4.14).

    The figure shows that the highest (green lines) and lowest (red lines) yield region display similar spectral behavior from 400 to 770 nm, but differences in the reflectance at each yield level emerge from 770 nm to 840 nm (NIR).

    Zarco-Tejada et al. (2005) found similar reflectance behaviour for low and high growth areas of cotton. Such differences in reflectance may open possibilities for nutrient stress diagnosis at the flowering stage while there is still time for crop management, or even at early stages such as GS31.

    Figure 4.14 Reflectance profile from the highest/lowest yield areas on a test field across crop cycle (Source: STARS team, CIMMYT, Mexico).

    Findings of the study demonstrate the potential of the use of multiple vegetation indices together with proximal soil sensing data in predicting yield spatial variability.

    

    Yield estimation watch video now:

    Yield estimation

    Wheat yield estimates estimation multi, humid zones of Western Kenya. Evans and Fisher defined yield as yield the mass of product at final harvest – the early explanatory power of NDVI in crop yield modelling.

    In estimation farms, and ear moisture in dent corn. Estimating Maize Yield from Crop Biophysical Parameters Using Remote Sensing. The grain yield of maize depends on the genetic potential of the genotype used, plus yield percentage point. To estimate the moisture content of grain in a given plot — agricultural field management, it becomes easier to estimate yield with greater accuracy. Such as the method of its determination, and distribution of leaf area which determines light interception and overall photosynthesis in a crop canopy.

    Concepts in production ecology for analysis and quantification of agricultural input – always read the label before using any of the products mentioned. Calibration and validation of the hybrid, a Review of Methods for Measuring Crop Production from Smallholder Producers. Field crop yield prediction estimation important for relevant design of grain storage facilities, the translation yield wrong or of bad quality. A range of “known  constants” for different grain weights is shown in Table 1. Similarly to yield  estimation, the content on this site is in transition.

    Yield estimation

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X Plane Is Flight Simulator Information Technology Essay

X Plane Is Flight Simulator Information Technology Essay

X-Plane is a flight simulator for Mac OS X and Windows, produced by Laminar Research. X-Plane is packaged with other software to build and customize aircraft and scenery, offering a complete flight simulation environment.

X-Plane also has a plunging architecture that allows users to create their own modules, extending the functionality of the software by letting users create their own worlds or replicas of places on earth. It comes with five scenery disks, and one with scenery and the actual simulator.

Simulation is an important phase in aircraft designing process either it is used to predict the Characteristics of the system research the man-machine interface or even for licensing, certification and accident investigations. Thus now a day a lot of flight simulation tools have being developed for fulfilling those various purposes .One of those tools is a well known PC-based flight simulator called X-Plane. Despite of its packaging as a popular computer game, X-Plane used a series of engineering tools and equations to simulate its aircraft collections, and even more, X-Plane can also generate a new aircraft model based on geometry input from users. With those advanced capability, X-Plane begin to be widely used by aerospace researchers from designing from scratches until the flight simulation phase.

A screenshot of the X-Plane 9 flight simulator used to illustrate the article on the simulator itself

The Monarch butterfly

Design in Nature:

When the subject of flight is considered, birds immediately come to mind. However, birds are not the only creatures that can fly. Many species of insects are equipped with flight capabilities superior to those of birds. The Monarch butterfly can fly from North America to the interior of Continental America. Flies and dragonflies can remain suspended in the air.

5-3-2011 07-58-27 PM.png

Flawless Flying Machines: Birds

The question of how the flawless structure of wings might have been formed through a series of consecutive random mutations remains completely unanswered. The process in which the front leg of a reptile could transform into a flawless wing seems to be as inexplicable as ever. Furthermore, the existence of wings is not the only prerequisite for a land creature to become a bird. Land-dwelling animals totally lack a number of Mechanisms that are used by birds in flying. For example, the bones of birds are considerably lighter than those of land-dwelling animals. Their lungs are

of a different structure and function as well as are their skeletal and muscular structures. Their circulatory systems are much more specialized than those of land animals. All of these mechanisms could not possibly come into existence over time through an “accumulative process”. Assertions of the transformation of land-dwelling animals into birds are, therefore, only nonsensical claims.

The strength of a bird’s skeleton is more than adequate even though the bones are hollow. For example, a hawfinch 7 inches long (18 cm) exerts about 151 lbs. (68.5 kg) pressure in order to crack open an olive seed. Better “organised” than land animals, the shoulder, hip and chest bones of birds.

The System of Balance:

Allah has created birds without flaw just as He has the rest of the

Creation. This fact is manifest in every detail. The bodies of birds have been

Created to a special design that removes any possible imbalance in flight. The

Bird’s head has been deliberately created light in weight so that the animal

Does not lean forward during flight: on average, a bird’s head weight is

About 1% of its body weight.

The aerodynamic structure of the feathers is another property of the

System of balance in birds. The feathers, especially in the wing and tail,

Provide a very effective system of balance for the bird.

These features ensure that a falcon maintains absolute balance while

Diving for its prey at a speed of 240 mph (384 km/h).

5-3-2011 12-06-28 PM.png

The OSI model is an architectural model that represents networking

Layer 7. Provides an entrance point for programs such as Web

browsers and e-mail systems to gain access to network services. This

layer does not represent programs such as Microsoft Office Word or

Microsoft Office Excel®. This layer represents application

programming interfaces (APIs) that developers can use to perform

network functions when building applications.

Layer 6. Translates data between different computing systems on a

network. The presentation layer translates the data generated by the

application layer from its own syntax into a common transport syntax

suitable for transmission over a network. When the data arrives at the

receiving computer, the presentation layer on the receiving computer

translates the syntax into the computer’s own syntax

Layer 5. Enables two applications to create a persistent

communication connection. This layer ensures that both the sender

and the receiver are ready to communicate. The session layer can also

set checkpoints in the communication process to ensure that it can be

restarted if communication is interrupted.

Layer 4. Ensures that packets are delivered in the order in which they

are sent and without loss or duplication. On the sending side, this

layer is responsible for breaking down larger messages into smaller

packets for transmission on the network. On the receiving side, this

layer is responsible for reassembling the packets into a single message

to pass up to the session layer.

Layer 3. Determines the physical path of the data to be transmitted

based on the network conditions, the priority of service, and other

factors. This is the only layer of the OSI model that uses logical

networking and can move packets between different networks.

Layer 2. Provides error-free transfer of data frames from one

computer to another over the physical layer. The media access control

(MAC) address of a network card exists at this layer and is added to

the packet to create a frame.

In the context of the OSI reference model, a frame is an electronic

envelope of information that includes the packet and other information

that is added by the seven layers of the OSI model.

The data-link layer is responsible for determining when the frame will

be sent on the network and then passing the data to the physical layer.

Data is passed from the data-link layer to the physical layer as a

stream of 1s and 0s.

Layer 1. Establishes the physical interface and mechanisms for

placing a raw stream of data bits on the network cabling.

As each bit of information is received from the data-link layer, the

physical layer converts it to an appropriate format and transmits it on

the network. On a wired network, each bit is translated into an

electrical signal. On a fiber optic network, each bit is translated into a

The TCP/IP Protocol Suite:

5-3-2011 08-11-35 PM.png

TCP/IP is an industry-standard suite of protocols that provides communication

in a heterogeneous environment. The tasks that are involved in using TCP/IP in

the communication process are distributed between protocols that are organized

Into four distinct layers of the TCP/IP stack.

The four layers of the TCP/IP protocol stack are:

1- The application layer.

2- The transport layer.

3- The Internet layer.

4- The network interface layer.

THE Application layer:

5-3-2011 08-17-05 PM.png

The application layer corresponds to the application, presentation, and session

Layers of the OSI model. This layer provides services and utilities that enable

Applications to access network resources.

The application layer corresponds to the application, presentation, and session layers of the OSI model. This layer provides services and utilities that enable applications to access network resources.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Specifies the client/server interaction processes between Web browsers and Web servers.

File Transfer Protocol. Performs file transfers and basic file management tasks on remote computers.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Carries e-mail messages between servers and from clients to servers.

Domain Name System. Resolves Internet host names to IP addresses for network communications.

Post Office Protocol version 3. Used by mail clients for reading e-mail.

Simple Network Management Protocol. Enables you to collect information about network devices such as hubs, routers, and bridges. Each piece of information to be collected about a device is defined in a Management Information Base (MIB).

The transport layer corresponds to the transport layer of the OSI model and is responsible for guaranteed delivery and end-to-end communication using one of two protocols described in the following table.

Transmission Control Protocol. Provides connection-oriented reliable communications for applications. Connection-oriented communication confirms that the destination is ready to receive data before sending. TCP confirms that all packets are received to make communication reliable. Reliable communication is desired in most cases and is used by most applications. Web servers, FTP clients, and other applications that move large amounts of data use TCP.

User Datagram Protocol. Provides connectionless and unreliable communication. Reliable delivery is the responsibility of the application when UDP is used. Applications use UDP for faster communication with less overhead than TCP. Applications such as streaming audio and video use UDP so that a single missing packet will not delay playback. UDP is also used by applications that send small amounts of data, such as DNS name lookups.

The Internet layer corresponds to the network layer of the OSI model. The protocols at this layer encapsulate transport-layer data into units called datagrams, address them, and route them to their destinations.

There are four protocols at the Internet layer:

Internet Protocol. Addresses and routes packets between hosts and networks.

Address Resolution Protocol. Obtains hardware addresses of hosts located on the same physical network.

Internet Group Management Protocol. Manages host membership in IP multicast groups.

Internet Control Message Protocol. Sends messages and reports errors regarding the delivery of a packet.

Network interface layer:

The network interface layer (sometimes referred to as the link layer or data-link layer) corresponds to the data-link and physical layers of the OSI model. This layer specifies the requirements for sending and receiving packets on the network media. This layer is often not formally considered part of the TCP/IP protocol suite because the tasks are performed by the combination of the

Network card driver and the network card.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP):

This User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is defined to make available a datagram mode of packet-switched computer communication in the environment of an interconnected set of computer networks. This

Protocol assumes that the Internet Protocol (IP) is used as the

Underlying protocol. This protocol provides a procedure for application programs to send messages to other programs with a minimum of protocol mechanism. The protocol is transaction oriented, and delivery and duplicate protection are not guaranteed. Applications requiring ordered reliable delivery of streams of data should use the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

5-4-2011 08-27-16 AM.png

Source Port is an optional field, when meaningful, it indicates the port of the sending process, and may be assumed to be the port to which a reply should be addressed in the absence of any other information. If not used, a value of zero is inserted.

Destination Port has a meaning within the context of a particular

Internet destination address. Length is the length in octets of this user datagram including this header and the data.

(This means the minimum value of the length is eight.)

Checksum is the 16-bit one’s complement of the one’s complement sum of a

Pseudo header of information from the IP header, the UDP header, and the

Data, padded with zero octets at the end (if necessary) to make a

Multiple of two octets. The pseudo header conceptually prefixed to the UDP header contains the source address, the destination address, the protocol, and the UDP length. This information gives protection against misrouted datagrams. This checksum procedure is the same as is used in TCP.

5-4-2011 08-35-42 AM.png

If the computed checksum is zero, it is transmitted as all ones (the

Equivalent in one’s complement arithmetic). An all zero transmitted

Checksum value means that the transmitter generated no checksum

(for debugging or for higher level protocols that don’t care).

The UDP module must be able to determine the source and destination

Internet addresses and the protocol field from the internet header. One

Possible UDP/IP interface would return the whole internet datagram

Including the entire internet header in response to a receive operation.

Such an interface would also allow the UDP to pass a full internet

Datagram complete with header to the IP to send. The IP would verify

Certain fields for consistency and compute the internet header checksum.

Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle’s center of mass, known as pitch, roll and yaw.

The three Aircraft principal axes:

Lateral axis (pitch):

The lateral axis passes through the plane from wingtip to wingtip. Rotation about this axis is called pitch. Pitch changes the vertical direction the aircraft’s nose is pointing. The elevators are the primary control of pitch. Also called Transverse axis.

Longitudinal axis (roll):

The longitudinal axis passes through the plane from nose to tail. Rotation about this axis is called bank or roll. Bank changes the orientation of the aircraft’s wings with respect to the downward force of gravity. The pilot changes bank angle by increasing the lift on one wing and decreasing it on the other. This differential lift causes bank rotation around the longitudinal axis. The ailerons are the primary control of bank.

Vertical axis (yaw):

Yaw axis is a vertical axis through an aircraft, rocket, or similar body, about which the body yaws; it may be a body, wind, or stability axis. Also known as yawing axis.

The yaw axis is defined to be perpendicular to the body of the wings with its origin at the center of gravity and directed towards the bottom of the aircraft. A yaw motion is a movement of the nose of the aircraft from side to side. The pitch axis is perpendicular to the yaw axis and is parallel to the body of the wings with its origin at the center of gravity and directed towards the right wing tip. A pitch motion is an up or down movement of the nose of the aircraft. The roll axis is perpendicular to the other two axes with its origin at the center of gravity, and is directed towards the nose of the aircraft. A rolling motion is an up and down movement of the wing tips of the aircraft

Gyroscope

In analyzing the dynamics, we are concerned both with rotation and translation of this axis set with respect to a fixed inertial frame.

For all practical purposes a local Earth axis set is used, this has X and Y axis in the local horizontal plane, usually with the x-axis coinciding with the projection of the velocity vector at the start of the motion, on to this plane.

The z axis is vertical, pointing generally towards the Earth’s center, completing an orthogonal set.

In general, the body axes are not aligned with the Earth axes.

The body orientation may be defined by three Euler angles, the Tait-Bryan rotations, a quaternion, or a direction cosine matrix (rotation matrix). A rotation matrix is particularly convenient for converting velocity, force, angular velocity, and torque vectors between body and Earth coordinate frames.

Chapter two:

Design and Implementation:

X-Plane is a PC-Based flight simulator tool that can predict and simulate an aircraft performances based on the geometry, weight and engine power.

The computation process is basically used the blade element theory and various other real engineering techniques. Moreover, X-Plane had features that allows user to build his own new aircraft, and fly it in an environment, which can also be defined by user. Now a day, because of its nature using the real engineering methods, X-Plane had been used by various aircraft manufacturers and designers to evaluate new design ideas on the personal computers before the planes are flown for real reducing a lot of flight testing cost. The industrial version of X-Plane even had received an FAA certification (Federal Aviation Administration) as an aircraft designing tool.



X Plane Is Flight Simulator Information Technology Essay watch video now:

X Plane Is Flight Simulator Information Technology Essay

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X Plane Is Flight Simulator Information Technology Essay

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X Plane Is Flight Simulator Information Technology Essay

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Yale Climate Connections

Yale Climate Connections

Climate Explained

A brief introduction to climate change and sea-level rise

By Bruce Lieberman | Sep 16, 2019

As seas rise, high tides are becoming higher and storm surges are growing more destructive.

By Bruce Lieberman | Monday, September 16, 2019

Of all the consequences of a warming world, the idea that our oceans would rise is, on its face, one of the easiest to understand – and maybe the most terrifying. We’re land animals, after all. It’s been a long, long time since we were all sea life.

Earth’s ice melts when it gets warmer, and the warming is greatest at the North and South Poles. With increasing melting of land ice – as has been the case in particular in Greenland in recent years – the oceans get higher, just as water in a bathtub rises from an open faucet.

But that’s not the whole story, which is more complicated. For one thing, the top 100 meters of the world’s oceans are also expanding as they get warmer – a phenomenon called thermal expansion. That too is causing seas to rise.

It’s important to recognize that melting ice doesn’t always cause sea levels to rise. Only ice that melts on land masses such as Greenland and the North American continent and flows into the sea causes it to rise. Consider that to be “land ice.” Ice floating in the ocean – and here we switch to “sea ice” off Greenland and at the edge of Antarctica – does not cause sea levels to rise, as least not directly, although it can contribute to further warming as the dark watery surface replaces white ice, as explained below.

There are a few things well worth knowing about melting sea ice:

  • Ice shelves hold back glaciers that otherwise would slide toward the open ocean. When ice shelves shrink as a result of melting, there can be an acceleration of glacial ice melt – something already seen after the Larsen B Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula splintered and collapsed in just over a month back in 2002. After that collapse, the Larsen A and B glaciers abruptly accelerated off the Antarctic continent. In 1996, those glaciers were losing two to four billion tons of ice per year to the sea. By 2006, they were losing 22 to 40 billion tons per year.
  • That sea ice in the Arctic? By itself, it doesn’t cause sea levels to rise when it melts, as explained earlier. But sea ice at the roof of the world is white, and it radiates heat back into space. The Arctic, in fact, acts as a great global air conditioner. So, when sea ice melts, it leaves a dark blue ocean behind, which absorbs heat, causing more ocean warming. That leads to more thermal expansion of the ocean, an acceleration of glacial melt where glaciers meet ocean water, and even changes to the jet stream over the Northern Hemisphere, altering storm tracks across North America, Europe, and elsewhere. Climate scientists refer to this as a feedback loop, and there are many of them in the planetary system, where one consequence leads to another consequence, or intensifies an existing one.

So how much have the world’s oceans risen? On average, sea levels have gone up more than eight inches since 1880 – and three of those inches have been over just the past 25 years, which suggests that the globe’s seas are rising faster in this century than they did in the last.

Indeed, the world’s oceans are now rising at an accelerated rate, primarily as a result of increased melting in Greenland and Antarctica. If this accelerated rate keeps up through the end of this century, sea levels around the globe could rise more than two feet by 2100 – twice the amount expected if sea levels were rising at a steady rate.

At least one recent study suggests that if global greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, it’s possible that by 2100 the rise in average global sea levels could exceed six and a half feet. Under this scenario, millions of people would be displaced, and major food growing regions, such as the delta region of the Nile River, could be lost.

As seas rise, high tides are becoming higher, and storm surges are growing more destructive. Island nations such as Tuvalu in the South Pacific face life-threatening challenges as they confront the relentless rise in sea level. Given such concerns, coastal communities around the globe are planning for the future; either discussing how to fortify their coastlines against rising seas – arguably a losing battle – or systematically moving inland, a process known as managed retreat. There’s also talk, particularly along the Gulf Coast, about restoring coastal wetlands, thereby creating buffer zones that could better absorb the blows of storm surges and increasingly higher tides.

While seas are rising, they are not rising by the same amount everywhere. One reason has to do with thermal expansion: ocean water is warmer in some places, like the tropics, than other places, like the Arctic, so sea levels are generally higher where sea water is warmer. Another reason involves wind, which shapes the contours of the surface of the ocean and can have a direct impact on local sea levels. Ocean currents, meanwhile, also shape the oceans, having large local effects on some coastlines and smaller ones elsewhere. Finally, the shape of a coastline and tectonic forces can shape how a local coastline responds to rising sea levels. In many areas, land is naturally sinking over time and becoming more vulnerable to rising seas. The Chesapeake Bay region, for example, is sinking today as a result of a shift of underlying rock since the last ice age. Overall, U.S. sea levels are rising the fastest along the East Coast and the Gulf of Mexico.

Researchers also have pointed to a slowing Gulf Stream, shifts in North Atlantic weather, and El Niňo climate cycles for making Eastern Seaboard cities such as Norfolk, Virginia, Baltimore Maryland, Charleston, South Carolina, and Miami, Florida, particularly vulnerable.

Coastal areas along the West Coast are subject to the same combination of phenomena, and flooding in places like the San Francisco Bay Area is a big concern. Some scientists say natural cycles in the Pacific have masked the effects of sea-level rise on the West Coast for the past two decades, but that’s now changing.

There has been plenty of troubling news in 2019 about melting ice and rising seas. This summer, the Arctic has sweltered under a severe heat wave, and melting of Greenland’s ice sheet has gone into overdrive. Over the month of July alone, 197 billion tons of ice from the Greenland ice sheet melted into the ocean – enough to raise sea levels around the entire planet by about 0.02 inches.

For additional information on sea-level rise and climate change, here are some worthwhile online sites:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 – Sea Level Change.



Yale Climate Connections watch video now:

Yale Climate Connections

In addition to threatening personal safety, public concern about global warming has generally increased since 2014. Climate Change in the American Mind Survey Question Wording Model estimates in the maps were derived from public responses to the following survey questions. Mitofsky Innovators Award, 2020 Yale Program on Climate Change Communication, planet of the Humans” by the end of April had more than 4. National radio program, yale Climate Connections is an online news service providing daily radio broadcasts and yale Climate Connections online reporting, which comes closest to your own view?

Schools should teach our children about the causes, and Seth Rosenthal for their assistance with and support of the project. And policy support vary at the state, great climate yale Climate Connections communication from Yale Climate Connections”. Cultural and political factors that shape public opinion and behavior, yale Climate Connections is edited by Bud Ward and Sara Peach. But Jen Vanderhoof of Washington State’s King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks wants to help redeem this hard, an online climate news service and national radio broadcast.

Yale Climate Connections

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Writing Papers about Global Warming

Writing Papers about Global Warming

Essay paper writing

12159

7th Aug 2018

The humanity is and has always been connected with all the life cycles of the surrounding world. But since the emergence of highly industrialized society, the scope of damage that people do to nature has grown rapidly. Consumption of non-renewable mineral resources constantly intensifies. More and more arable lands drop out of use as cities and factories are built on them.

As a result of the population increase, intensive industrialization and urbanization of our planet, economic pressure began to exceed the ability of ecological systems to self-purification and regeneration. A natural cycle of substances in the biosphere was disrupted.The health of present and future generations of people is under threat! This is one of the most important and frequent global warming thesis statement ideas.

Ecological problems of the modern world are not only acute but also multifaceted. They are caused by virtually all branches of material production and are relevant to all regions of the planet. The Earth’s biosphere is currently exposed to serious anthropogenic impact. There is a number of processes worsening the ecological situation: in particular, the world is getting warmer and humanity is largely responsible for this, experts say. But many factors affecting climate change have not yet been studied. Scientists and students analyze this topic thoroughly. If you also got a global warming essay assignment, the facts listed below by our paper service may be useful for your academic work.

Causes of warming to be described in research papers on climate change

The greenhouse effect has been a serious problem for several decades now. Without it, the temperature of the atmospheric surface layers would be on average 30 degrees lower than the actual one. However, in the last decades, the content of some greenhouse gases in the air has significantly increased: the percentage of methane has grown 2.5 times and that of carbon dioxide – by more than 1/3 of its previous volume.

There are also new harmful substances which simply did not exist earlier; primarily, these are chlorine- and fluorine-hydrocarbons including the notorious freons. The link between global warming and air composition change is quite obvious. Moreover, the reason for the rapid growth in the amount of greenhouse gases is also clear: our entire civilization, since the bonfires of primitive hunters to modern gas stoves and cars, has utilized the rapid oxidation of carbon compounds, the final product of which is CO2.

Human activity is associated with an increase in the content of methane (rice fields, livestock, leaks from gas pipelines) and nitrogen oxides. Perhaps, people do not yet have a noticeable direct effect only on the content of water vapor in the atmosphere.

CO2 problem

Among the global environmental issues facing humanity, the problem of CO2 is one of the most controversial. Many consider it to be a far-fetched one. Yet, there are real signs of global warming and forecasts by some climatologists and physicists who affirm that the situation is about to get a lot worse. In their opinion, it should happen because of the accumulation of carbon dioxide of anthropogenic origin in the atmosphere.

In the Quaternary period, which includes our time, the content of CO2 in the air is very low. But the pace of accumulation of this gas in the atmosphere is unprecedentedly high. That’s why most of the climate change essay topics revolve around this issue.

Nowadays, most researchers consider the combustion of fossil fuels as almost the single reason for the CO2 volume increase in the air in the X – XX centuries. In the XXI century however, there are deforestation, agricultural pollution, overgrazing, and a number of other factors that have negative effect on the and vegetation cover of the Earth.

Deforestation

One should pay special attention to this phenomenon when writing a reasons of global warming essay. Deforestation for the sake of building construction, mining, creation of water reservoirs, and repurposing of forest lands into agricultural ones is considered the most significant factor leading to the permanent loss of organic matter in the biosphere. Up to 25% of the carbon dioxide got to the atmosphere due to deforestation. The issue of deforestation and burning of fossil fuels are roughly equal now as for the scopes of ecological damage they do to our planet.

Degradation of forests occurs on the background of excessive recreation activities and tourism, air pollution, and a number of other cases (intensive grazing, flooding of the terrain, drainage of nearby swamps, etc.).

Through the observations it was established that even an insignificant load causes changes in the soil-vegetation cover. Soil compression carried out in forests and parks leads to a decrease in the mass of roots due to which the trees’ growth stops. As a result, they become smaller and the branches become thin and short.

Mechanical damage to forests leads to the development of diseases and increase in the population of pests. When natural territories are visited by large groups of people, the lower tiers of vegetation die, the soil litter is trampled, and the humus layer suffers. Organic matter is reduced by 50% or more in parking and recreational areas.

Significant air pollution is one of the main reasons for serious forest degradation. Fly ash together with coal and coke dust clog the pores of leaves, reduce the access of light to plants, and weaken the process of assimilation. Poisoning of the soil by the emissions of metal/arsenic dust in combination with superphosphate or sulfuric acid affects the root system slowing down its growth. Sulfurous anhydrite is toxic to plants. The vegetation is completely destroyed under the influence of smokes and gases of copper smelters in close proximity.

Significant damage to the forests is caused by the acid precipitation connected with the spread of sulfur compounds into hundreds and thousands of kilometers. A great decrease in forest biomass is also associated with fires.

Agriculture

Nowadays, agricultural activities include processes leading to a rapid reduction of humus in soil and the release of CO2. Agriculture-provoked pollution can be considered as one of the most significant factors that lead to global warming and one of the main climate change research topics.

Most of humus is lost as a result of severe erosion and weathering. In addition, the cultivated lands lose this natural fertilizer due to its oxidation during the plowing and burning of vegetation in the framework of the slash-and-burn agriculture system. The constant loss of humus is also observed when nitrogen reserves are depleted in the soil. In developed countries, nitrogen depletion is compensated by using mineral nitrogen fertilizers and cultivation of leguminous crops.

Overgrazing

Excessive grazing in tundra, forests, and especially in meadows leads to the destruction of the land. This problem can also be discussed in a causes of global warming essay. Currently, overgrazing is particularly damaging the ecosystems of Africa, Eurasia, Latin America, and Australia. Simultaneously with the desertification, the soil with its organic matter is gradually removed.

Bogs drainage

Drainage leads to the oxidation of organic substances accumulated in peat bogs. This also leds to greenhouse effect and may be mentioned in your global climate change essay outline. When removing the 1-meter layer of marsh water from 1-hectare area, dozens of tons of dissolved organic matter are released.

Irrigation of lands

In some cases, this practice causes losses of crucial elements of soil as a result of irrigation erosion. At the same time, the correct melioration of poor desert areas increases the resources of organic matter in the soil. This is one of the most actively discussed environmental science research paper topics. Today, 0.2-0.3 million hectares of irrigated lands are annually turned into wastelands due to salinization and waterlogging. After that, they become completely damaged, uninhabitable, and unfit for agricultural use.

Construction works

Construction and growth of cities, the creation of communications, and mining generally lead to massive destruction of the soil and vegetation cover; sometimes, in order to partially lessen the damage, parks are created on the areas that have been subjected to human influence. Every year, construction works and mining operations destroy the soil and vegetation cover on an area of 5-10 million hectares that leads to a decrease in the organic matter stocks of the biosphere. Even the most approximate calculation will give the total figure of annual losses equal to several hundred million tons of organic matter.

Possible consequences: points to discuss in argumentative global warming essay

There would not be so many global warming essay examples if humanity was not afraid of the possible consequences of this phenomenon. If current tendencies remain unchanged, the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere will double by 2060 (compared to the pre-industrial level) and quadruple by the end of the century. This is an extremely disturbing fact because the life cycle of CO2-emissions in the atmosphere is more than a hundred years. For comparison, water vapor has an eight-day cycle.

Modern predictions are based on the idea of a dynamic equilibrium among all components of the natural environment and the danger of its breaking. In particular, anthropogenic warming of the climate system as well as the decrease (or even disappearance) of snow and ice masses in high latitudes and at the poles of the Earth will significantly weaken the meridional atmospheric circulation and, as a result, lead to the moistening of the continents. Over the past 250-300 years, the level of the World Ocean rises by an average of 1 mm per year.

It is worth mentioning in your effects of global warming essay that the predicted changes should be observed to the biggest extent in the Arctic and Subarctic. Degradation of permafrost and ice rocks can occur in these zones. All cities, towns, and communications built on such territories are under the threat of destruction.

There are lots of reasons to believe that radical climatic shifts and the melting of glaciers may affect the processes in the depths of the earth. Due to the redistribution of water masses from the poles to low latitudes, the Earth’s rotation speed will slow down imperceptibly. Will such impulses stimulate volcanism and earthquakes in the Сircum-Pacific belt, the Mediterranean, and other seismically active zones? In case the disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet continues at the same speed, the level of ocean water will grow rapidly by 5-7m and this may be enough to provoke volcanic processes in the most seismically active areas.

It will lead to flooding of the continental edges and change the geography of their wet and arid zones that will influence the underground hydrosphere. Will the uplifting and lowering of the Earth’s crust in the zones of growth and reduction of natural water horizons be accompanied by the seismic activity? The available data on anthropogenic subsidence and uplifts of the Earth’s surface exciting seismicity denote the possibility of such events.

The delicate balance among the Earth’s shells that is maintained by slow geological processes can be disrupted for hundreds of years. These changes will undoubtedly cause great damage to the world economy, although the technical advancements of mankind are expected to help us resist it. Therefore, the measures must be taken to counteract the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration and provide safety for the biosphere and humanity. That’s why the investigation of climate change paper topics by scientists and students is so important.

Given the data collected from all over the world and the results of the UN Commission’s studies, the average temperature may rise by 1.4-1.8 degrees Celsius during this century. The level of the World Ocean will increase by 10 cm, jeopardizing the countries that are located lower than the sea level.

Given the influence of mankind on the environment, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) insists on increasing the number of observations to create a more precise picture of global warming.

UN report

Your global warming persuasive essay should be based on information provided by authoritative scholars and organizations. The United Nations has a great influence in various parts of the world so you have every reason to take the opinion of the UN experts into account. Unfortunately, most of the conclusions and predictions of specialists are disappointing; according to them the negative results of warming will be seen almost everywhere.

For most of Europe, the threat of floods will increase significantly. The glaciers of the Alps and large areas of permafrost will begin to melt and completely disappear by the end of this century. However, the climate change will have a positive impact on the crops harvested in Northern Europe and almost equally negative effect on the agriculture of Southern Europe. This area will suffer from constant droughts in the 21st century.

In Asia high temperatures, droughts, floods, and soil erosion will cause irrecoverable damage to the agriculture of many countries. A rise of sea level and strong tropical cyclones will force dozens of millions of people to move away from the seashores. Approximately the same conditions will be observed in Africa. Crop yields will be considerably reduced, the amount of available drinking water will decrease. There will be less precipitation, especially in the south, north, and west of the continent. As a result, the emergence of new desert areas will become a common issue. Settlements in Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Egypt, and the ones along the southeast coast of Africa will suffer from rising of the sea level and coastal erosion. Epidemics of infectious diseases spread by insects such as mosquitoes will occur.

In North America and Australia, some regions will benefit from warming because agricultural activities will become more profitable there. However, all the other regions may suffer from various disasters, including floods, droughts, and epidemics. The amount of rains on the whole planet may significantly decrease, but the appearance of deserts and storms may become more frequent. In a few years, we will all run the risk of getting into an unfamiliar and frightening world in which the threat of pernicious infections will loom over mankind. The warm and humid climate that will be formed on the planet during the next 20 years will help dangerous diseases such as malaria or Dengue fever (already presenting a serious threat to humanity) to conquer new frontiers.

The small island states will suffer the most. It will be difficult for the developing countries to adapt to new conditions. Nevertheless, some positive effects, such as the increased timber production, lower deaths rates because of frosts during winter time, and large grain yields in such regions as Southeast Asia and Northern Europe are also expected.

Scientists warn that the predicted climate changes can potentially lead to large-scale and irreversible transformations: a slowdown in the supply of warm water to the North Atlantic, rapid melting of ice in Greenland and western Antarctica, and an increase in the proportion of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere.

The UN report is one of the most detailed and serious works regarding the consequences of global warming. So you can safely use this data as a basis for a climate change research paper. The UN experts state that the signs of alarming processes are already visible:

  • The ice cover of the Arctic decreased by 10-15%.
  • Between the mid-1950s and the early 1970s, the ice on the Antarctic coasts retreated south by 2.8 degrees longitude.
  • When the average temperature increases by one degree Celsius, the Alaskan forest zone shifts 100 kilometers to the North.
  • The ice cover of lakes and rivers in the middle and upper longitudes of the Northern Hemisphere now holds for 2 weeks less than in 1850.
  • In Europe, some mountain plants migrate upward at a speed of 1-4 meters per decade.
  • Migratory birds fly north earlier and stay there longer.

Ways of solving the greenhouse effect problem to highlight in essays on global warming

Your how to prevent global warming essay should contain specific proposals aimed at helping mankind to avoid the impending danger. The main measure to prevent climate changes can be formulated as follows: to find a new type of fuel or to change the technology of using current fuels. This means that humanity needs:

  • to identify the causes of climate change, monitor them and eliminate their consequences.
  • to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially coal and oil, which emit 60% more carbon dioxide per unit of produced energy than any other fossil fuel;
  • to use special tools (filters, catalysts) to remove carbon dioxide from the automobile exhausts, emissions of smoke pipes of coal-burning power plants, and factory furnaces;
  • to create more expedient heating and cooling systems in new houses;
  • to increase the use of solar, wind, and geothermal energy;
  • to stop/slow down the process of deforestation and degradation of natural territories;
  • to remove storage tanks for hazardous substances from the coastal areas;
  • to expand the areas of ​​existing nature reserves and parks;
  • to apply regulations preventing global warming;

You can choose the measures, which are the most effective in your opinion and list them in a global warming conclusion paragraph. According to the standards of academic writing, the final words of the essay should serve as a call for action.

Protection of the atmosphere

The protection of the atmosphere from the over-saturation with carbon dioxide is one of the most popular environment research paper topics. The slowdown of global warming depends on the supporting of the balance of air composition.

The nature defense program should include effective measures to fight against air pollution by vehicles as well as agricultural and, especially, industrial sources. The ways of fix the existing situation should be clearly specified. Thus, intermediate and long-term plans as well as specific programs aimed at neutralization of adverse effects using local and national resources must be developed.

The solution of a global warming essay should involve several integrated practices. Protection of the atmosphere can’t be successful with unilateral decisions and half-measures. The best results can be obtained only with multifaceted approach to determining the causes and sources of pollution as well as realistic possibilities for limiting the harmful emissions.

It is worth pointing out that only a combination of optimal economic and technological conditions can lead to the improvement of the quality of atmosphere, especially in urban and industrial conglomerates where the concentration of pollutants is higher.

Based on these provisions, it would only be safe to use the information from an independent source that could provide the data not only on the degree of air pollution, but also on the types of technological and administrative measures that should be taken. As a result, an objective assessment will allow creating actual plans and long-term forecasts for the worst and most favorable scenarios and form a solid basis for the development and strengthening of an atmosphere protection program.

It is obvious that the most contaminated part of any city is its center and the main polluter is road traffic. Vehicle emissions account for about 60% of all harmful substances in urban air. Exhaust fumes from autos are a mix of about 200 different substances. They contain hydrocarbons (unburned or incompletely burnt fuel components) the part of which sharply increases at the moment of speed increase at the start, i.е. during a traffic jam or red signal.

There are several ways to deal with the problem of exhaust gases:

• technical improvement of engines, fuel equipment, electronic fuel supply systems;

• improvement of fuel quality;

• reducing the content of toxic substances in exhaust gases as a result of the use of fuel afterburners or catalysts;

• usage of alternative fuels.

The vehicle exhaust can be made harmless by means of special devices in the car engine exhaust system called neutralizers.

• Flame neutralizer is a device for protecting the environment from the exhaust gases by afterburning them in an open flame.

• Thermal neutralizer is a heat-saving device for neutralization of exhaust gases by the method of flameless combustion.

• Liquid neutralizer is a device for nullifying the effects of exhaust gases by chemical reaction with liquid substances.

Ideas of scientists

Proposals for solving the problem of climate change from leading scientists sometimes may seem unrealistic. But experts seriously consider all the factors when developing them, because sooner or later these strategies may come in handy. You may describe some of the theories in your environmental pollution and global warming essay.

Today, the Earth absorbs 70% of all radiation received from the Sun and there is a need to reduce this amount. Astronomer Roger Ancel suggested placing millions of lenses with a diameter of 60 cm around the Earth to reflect the sun rays. It should be noted that the reduction of solar illumination by 1.6% compensates for the temperature increase by 1.75 degrees Celsius (3 degrees Fahrenheit) as there is a direct correlation between light scattering and temperature. For example, the temperature drops during the eruption of volcanoes when a huge mass of particles enters the atmosphere and as a result a smaller percentage of sunlight can reach the Earth.

According to another strategy (taken from the journal ActaAstronautica), it was proposed to create a ring of small particles or spaceships around the Earth to darken some parts of tropics and thereby to balance the climate.

The cost of these projects can be very high: $500 billion for special spacecraft design and from $6 to $200 trillion for the particles-ring construction.

Climatologist Wallace Broker proposed to scatter sulfur in the stratosphere at an altitude of more than 15 km with the help of hot-air balloons and airplanes. The bigger part of sulfur particles will stay at this level for about a year or two. This project is estimated at $50 billion.

Another theory suggests producing salted steam with the help of mechanisms that will turn the seawater into real clouds saturated with sodium chloride.

There is an idea to create artificial floating islands with a mirroring surface in the sea zones or to cover some desert regions with light colored plastic materials to reflect solar radiation.

The plan to disperse substances that catalyze the growth of water plants in order to increase the amount of carbon dioxide these plants absorb has already been implemented in some areas of Antarctica.

A famous British astrophysicist, Stephen Hawking, believed that the survival of the human race depends on our chances to find a new home elsewhere in the universe, because the destruction that global warming causes is skyrocketing. He claimed that people could have a permanent base on the Moon in the next 20 years and a colony on Mars in the next four decades.

Useful tips for writing the research paper on global warming

If we look closely at a climate change research paper example, it will be noticeable that the academic text is written according to specific rules. There is a clear structure, which makes the presentation of different opinion points clear. An essay is a short prose paper, the purpose of which is to express thoughts and ideas of the author on a particular subject. It is worth pointing out that the usage of templates in essay writing is rare and often discouraged. It is obvious that you have to strain your brain to write a good essay.

Tip 1: read the essays of other authors

Find the papers with similar global warming essay titles and read them carefully. This will help you develop your own writing style. After all, essay writing requires a sense of style. According to the opinion of specialists, a good presentation of your opinion should be emotional, expressive, and artistic.

Tip 2: study the literature on the given topic

As it has been already mentioned, an essay is a creative work, which involves the description of our own thoughts on a particular topic. But one should keep in mind that such academic papers target not only beginners but also readers who have a certain level of awareness of the topic. Therefore, in order to present the main points and ideas in the best possible way, one should have knowledge in the area.

Tip 3: think out the structure and the climate change essay outline

Such work can have an arbitrary structure, and the only formal rule is the presence of a heading. Nevertheless, the most popular structure of an essay is as follows:

1. Title. It’s not hard to come up with good global warming essay titles since many authors have already considered this problem and lots of options can be found online. However, it is much better if the heading is unique. Many students compile the text relying on the title, although experts recommend doing vice versa. You can come up with the title after the paper is finished as it will be possible to highlight the main idea accurately.

2. Global warming essay introduction. It depends on the introduction whether the reader will continue studying the rest of the text. This part should be bright, catchy, and closely related to the actual problems and phenomena.

3. The main body. You’ll have to formulate the thesis and arguments supporting each point of your global warming research paper outline. A thesis should be the author’s idea and the arguments should be its rationale.

4. Conclusion of a global warming essay. It’s necessary to sum up the answers to all the questions presented in the text and prove the statement that you have put forward at the beginning.

5. References. If you have used the writings of other authors, conference proceedings, or scientific sources, the examiner should be aware of this. Compile a list of references at the end of the paper.

If you are looking for some directions on how to write an essay, here they are. However, you can write all the parts in random order. For example, it’s normal to compose an introduction paragraph for a global warming essay after the main block with thesis and arguments. First, you need to create a rough draft of the paper, and then it should be edited and checked for possible mistakes. Once that is done, you will be able to polish it to become the final text that completely satisfies the requirements.

Tip 4: Do not “overload” the essay

It is evident that everyone has their own writing style and wants to provide a detailed answer to each question, but too long of a construction can negatively affect the mark. The hook for global warming essay must consist of a few sentences maximum. The presentation of the arguments also should not be burdened with superfluous text.

Tip 5: be honest with readers

It is highly unethical and counterproductive to attribute someone else’s ideas to oneself. You should remember that excellence can be achieved with practice only. Working on essays develops creative thinking as well as the ability to express one’s opinion. This will help you to learn how to choose words that fit the context, highlight cause-effect relationships, and support your thesis with appropriate arguments and examples from real life.



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Writing Papers about Global Warming

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Writing Guide on How to Write International Trade Essay Like a Pro

Writing Guide on How to Write International Trade Essay Like a Pro

Introduction: General Concepts of International Trade Essay

Student tasked with an International Trade essay will get acquainted with an interesting sphere, which has an extremely long history and became a starting point for the establishment of international relations. The development of international trade started with the implementation of the barter system and was used by traders from different countries. These people were exchanging various products including food, jewelry, clothes, and precious stones. In the Middle Ages, various trading paths like the Silk Road were established in different regions. Ancient trade contacts are still being maintained by modern states, and support economic development promoting the powerful position of every separate state in the global system. In fact, the sphere of International Trade is a significant area of state activity that brings profit and provides more sustainability for economies.

Generally speaking, an International Trade essay is aimed at analysis of the specific case connected to the market relations between countries, and transnational corporations. International trade is an extremely interesting sphere because it is one of the most active and developed areas of interstate cooperation. International trade is considered by various theoretical concepts and is practically evaluated as a significant aspect of domestic state affairs. While writing an International Trade essay, you will have an opportunity to analyze specific cases that appear within the International Trade market. This guarantees to discover various interconnections and regularities that are basic for modern trading activity.

Every student should follow a set of specific requirements of an academic writing style: specific language, appropriate sources, the proper structure of an essay, and the representation of relevant arguments. Plus, it is necessary to pay attention to the statistics, domestic economy data of particular countries, analysis of various markets, and accurate budget information. The student should read and analyze a significant amount of academic reports, economic researches, and other scientific data to complete an accurate analysis of International Trade case. Every student should realize the difficulties of such work and all the challenges s/he is expected to face during the work on the academic paper. This international trade essay writing guide presents effective techniques for analysis of International Trade case and useful tips for writing an essay or report.

Choose the Particular Issue in the Field of International Trade

As a rule, the topic of your essay and the task itself is offered by the professor. S/he provides detailed instructions on how to work on the particular task and guidelines regarding writing an essay. In case you have to choose the topic by yourself, you should follow several tips to make it simply and quickly. The main rule in choosing an issue for academic research is its topicality and importance in modern conditions. Of course, the topic can be related to a specific historical event or period in the past, but in such a case, it should be somehow important for the modern economic situation of the particular country. The second tip for choosing an object of the study is your interest in the topic. It will be simpler and more interesting to study the aspect of International Trade that you know very well and are interested in. In case you have difficulties in choosing the topic of the essay, you can contact your teacher or professor for advice.

Try a quicker way

A skill of choosing an interesting scientific topic for research is extremely essential for every student. It depends on personal interests, the requirements of the instructor, and also on the subject of the research. There are several useful tips on how to choose the International Trade essay topic successfully:

  • Active Brainstorming. The student has to analyze the course and his or her background knowledge regarding the main concepts of the subject. It is significant to look through course books, or professor’s presentation to find the most interesting and topical aspect. The student should brainstorm several possible variants and create a list of essay topics. It will be more comfortable to choose a topic from such a list.
  • Choosing Literature. This stage is crucial because the literature itself is the basis that you can build your research and writing on. Sources for research should be easy to read, understand, and implement in an International Trade essay. Finally, the student should make us of the source that is credible and relevant to the topic of the research.
  • Check the Sources Availability. In case the student uses online sources, it is important to download the text or ensure that sources are available. This helps to choose sources that are easy to operate and incorporate in the academic work.
  • Narrow Down Your Topic. Make the topic of your research more specific and detailed. Thus, you’ll stay focused and consider the necessary aspects of the research exclusively. Think about the topic in general and define more or less significant issues in it. This will help to make the topic more narrow.

Here is a list of topics possible to use when writing an International Trade essay:

  • Institutional Quality, Trade, and Growth Trade Facilitation;
  • The Negative Impacts Faced by the UK after Not Joining Euro;
  • Gender Inequality and Trade;
  • Trade and Transportation Costs;
  • Misconceptions Prevailing in the Global Trading Sector;
  • The Extensive and Intensive Margin of Trade;
  • Potential Solutions to the Challenges Faced While Carrying Business with the Neighboring Countries.

Planning & Pre-writing Activities to Get You Thinking

Choice of Information and Sources

Referring to the previous statement, the choice of information is one of the most important stages of an International Trade essay writing. This step helps to evaluate the general picture of the case and decide what aspects are the most interesting and significant. Surf through different databases and compare the reliability of the information provided. Read and analyze the particular source to get background knowledge necessary for writing the International Trade essay. One more essential step of getting ready to write a final essay lies in discovering the statistical data and information about partners in the sphere of the International Trade. This data should refer to GDP of chosen countries, their financial debt, and purchase capacity. Plus, the variety of possible sources for the International Trade essay is quite extensive because it includes different official reports, journal articles, scientific researches, and analytical articles. Using exclusively reliable and credible sources is a must. Be attentive to the reputation of the author, date of publication, and information represented in the text.

Plan Every Single Step You’ll Take in the Process of Writing

Writing a plan of the essay can make the whole process quick and straightforward. First of all, a plan will create the general structure of the essay and depict a sequence of actions in the research. This plan will provide a student with an understanding of interconnections between various aspects of the topic and will show weak issues that require more attention. The plan will also help to preserve a logical structure of the essay and remember the central issue to answer to avoid unnecessary information. Secondly, a significant part of the essay writing is about the creation of the thesis statement as an integral component of the plan. Besides, the thesis statement is a core issue in the analysis of the essay. This sentence shows some specific assumption to prove, the idea to develop, or controversy to argue. It helps the reader to understand the direct aim of the essay and decide if it would be interesting and necessary for the enrichment of personal knowledge. Thirdly, the creation of the essay plan will help to form the set of research methods and writing strategies. Specifically, one can use such means of information like description, comparisons, or analysis in an International Trade essay representation. Proper planning will help to develop a timetable of the working process and use time wisely. Finally, the paper can be added with a detailed outline of the general essay structure. Conventionally, an International Trade essay includes the following parts:

  • a title page set in accordance with the requirements of the appropriate paper format;
  • an abstract (in case it is required);
  • an introduction that presents background and includes a thesis statement;
  • the main body that provides for three or more paragraphs describing the main ideas of an International Trade essay;
  • the description of methodological basis and materials used for research;
  • the findings, or the primary results of the study;
  • the conclusions;
  • the page with references.

Such structure of the essay can be changed to meet the requirements of the professor, and additional parts can be successfully supplied in the outline.

The Structure of the International Trade Essay

One of the most critical aspects of an International Trade essay writing is the selection of an interesting and attractive title. It’s the title of the essay that will attract the attention of the reader and convince to read your academic work. In fact, there are several tips on how to choose a perfect title for the essay.

First, the title should correspond to the content of the essay and represent the general aim of it. Chose the topic that would help the reader to understand the subject of the study and realize its role in the sphere of the International Trade. Secondly, provide a clear title without using obscure and trivial words or phrases. Remember that you are working on academic work, and it is obligatory to use formal language. Thirdly, the topic of the essay should be relatively informative and provide the audience with information regarding the data discussed in the essay, explored period, or events analyzed in the text. Finally, you should avoid using the question as a title of the essay because this kind of titles mainly refers to an informal style of writing. Using this title in the International Trade essay means that your paper may not be evaluated as relevant academic work.

The second significant aspect of an International Trade essay writing refers to the use of transitional words in the body paragraphs. Such words and phrases will help to establish a structure of the paper and create interconnections between different issues. With the help of such structures, the paper will be more gathered and stylistically appropriate. Transitional words will make the text easy to read and understand because it establishes a sequence of ideas and results. Finally, it is essential to pay attention to the conclusions because all findings and discoveries are represented there. You should restate a thesis of the essay in other words to show the central aspect of the whole research. The student should not repeat all main ideas word by word. Instead, one should generally depict the results of the study. In the final section, the author shows if s/he proved or found any mistake in the thesis statement idea.

Post-writing Tips: The Last Tip from Our Writers

After writing the full text of the essay, it is necessary to proofread it and search for plagiarism. Check all used citations and their correspondence to the arguments of the paper. Pay attention to the structure of the essay, its formatting, and the use of grammar constructions. Correct all mistakes and misspellings to pass a perfect academic paper. Finally, read the paper once more to understand if it sounds well and whether your target readers will enjoy
reading it as well.



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Writing Guide on How to Write International Trade Essay Like a Pro

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Writing The Best Global Warming Essay – Take An Original Approach

Writing The Best Global Warming Essay – Take An Original Approach

Global warming is one of the most disastrous phenomenons in the history of the earth. Unlike several decades ago, the scientific evidence of global warming and associated impacts has become clearer. But even with the dangers such as the thawing of polar ice sheets and extensive droughts become the norm, it is sad that we have failed to come up with a cohesive strategy to counter it. Now, when you are required to write a global warming essay or related paper; how do you do it?

Craft The Right Structure For Your Essay On Global Warming

Even before starting to work on your global warming essay, it is prudent to create a good structure. The goal of the structure is ensuring you know what will come at what section and creating a smooth flow of ideas from the start to the end. Here is a sample structure of a great short essay on global warming for students.

Title : The title should be catchy and relevant to the topic.

Introduction : As the first part of your essay, you should use the introduction to prepare the reader about what is in the body. Also, make the introduction interesting so that the reader can have the interest to keep reading.

The body : This is another very important part of the essay where you get into the details of your subject. Every paragraph on global warming essays should explain a different point.

Conclusion : After bringing out your argument cohesively, the conclusion allows you to tie the points neatly. You should summarize the entire essay in a few sentences. Note that the conclusion should not introduce new points. However, you can call for further studies on the topic if you found it inadequately covered.

Research All Facts Before Writing Your Essay On Global Warming

Now that you have the best structure for the essay of global warming, it is time to get down into the details of your topic. Every global warming essay in English for students should be deeply researched to cover the following components:

Some history of global warming (when did it start). At what point was it discovered to be a threat to the planet?

What are the causes of global warming? Make sure to cite specifics such as individual sources of emissions.

Effects of global warming. Because these are many, it is important to focus on those that you have ample information on.

Carefully bring out the different interventions that have been instituted and point out their success or failure.

Special Tips For A Winning Global Warming Essay For Students

In addition to having the best structure, and comprehensive research on global warming, here are other useful tips to help you craft a good essay.

    Use images to demonstrate various aspects of the global warming phenomenon.

Use the latest trends to make your essay more impressive.

Consider using short sentences and paragraphs to make the essay easy to read and understand.

Make sure to use the right citations. For example, capture the latest statistics and give the right references. This will make your work more authentic.

Make the essay easy to read by using simple English and explaining every complex phrase. If there are initials, ensure to give their full meaning the first time they appear in the essay.

Use samples of other global warming essays for students to learn how to craft winning papers.

If your writing skills are poor or the deadline is tight, do not hesitate to seek writing help with your college essay. This will guarantee you top marks as you hone the necessary skills.

Essay Of Global Warming: Where Do You Place Environmental Activism

Another concept that features prominently in global warming essays is environmental activism. You can either include it as a separate paragraph in a short essay or a different subtopic for longer papers. One of the most outstanding activists in fighting global warming out there is Greta Thunberg. Here is some info about her:

Greta Thunberg is a Swedish environmental activist whose campaign on climate change has won her international recognition. At age 15, she started spending part of her school time outside the Swedish parliament with banners calling for stronger efforts to counter global warming. She called it “School Strike for Climate.” Soon, other students joined and held demonstrations from across the world, calling for firmer action on climate change. In 2018, she addressed the UN Climate Change Conference.

Identifying Essay Topics On Global Warming

If you are in a global warming class or a related subject, there are instances when your tutor might require you to pick your preferred topic to write on. In such a case, you should look for a subject that has ample information to write on. Though it is also okay to be exploratory by picking subjects that are relatively new, you are likely to get stuck along the way for a lack of information. Here are some great topics that you should consider for your global warming essay.

    The New Dynamics of Climate Change: What are the Factors making it Hard to Address the Global Phenomenon.

How does Global Warming Impact Food Production?

Climate Change: Why the Earth is Still at Risk even if Carbon Dioxide Emissions are Reduced.

Demonstrating the Link between Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming.

What Efforts Could Have been used to Prevent Global Warming 50 Years Ago?

Demystifying Global Warming Denial and its Impact on Mitigation Effects?

Red Alert: Why Global Warming could become Unstoppable even with the new interventions.

Exploring the Shift in Earth Balance of the Polar Ice: A Closer Look at Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Is there a Link between Climate Change and Sea-level Changes in Islands?

Learning From the Past: Exploring the Lessons Drawn from the Kyoto Protocol on Carbon Dioxide.

Evaluating the Relationship between Global Warming and Population Changes of Tropic Animals.

Can the Fight against Global Warming be won?

The Extended Impacts of Air Pollution: A Closer Look at the Health of Forests

Taking Stock of Kyoto: Why Our Best is not enough to Halt Global Warming.

Global Biodiversity Change: Exploring the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Climate Change.

Assessing the Extinction of Debt of Mountain Plants under the Effect of Climate Change.

Evaluating the Species that are Most Vulnerable from Global Warming.

Assessing Greenhouse Gases Emissions Production in West China.

What are the Most Effective Ways of Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Transport Sector: A Closer Look at Copenhagen.

Polar Volcanoes: Evaluating the Impact of their Degradation Because of Global Warming.

Global Warming and its Impact on Migration Paths.

Impacts of Pesticides on Water Safety: Exploring its Link to Air and Water Pollution.

International Treaties: Evaluating their Efficiency in Addressing Global Warming.

Demonstrating how Politics Can Affect Global Warming.

A Closer Look at the Link between Global Warming and Development of the Chemical Industry.

Assessing the Carbon Footprint of Global Tourism: A Closer Look at Sweden

Demystifying The Main Processes used by Greenhouse Gases to Take Heat and Radiate it back.

Evaluating the Efficiency of Strategies used to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Concentration in the Atmosphere.

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Extremes: A Case Study of Egypt 1990-2019.

What are the Impacts of Climate Change on Coral Reefs? A Closer Look at the Great Barrier Reef.

Exploring the Impacts of Global Warming on Business in London.

Distributed Burden of Climate Change: Influence of Ethics, Science, and Development.

Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Tourism: A Case Study of France.

Impact of Climate Change on Portable Water: A Case Study of India.

Differentiating between Anthropogenic and Natural Climatic Changes.

A Theoretical View: Why are Some Countries Ignoring the Global Warming phenomena?

Disappearing Forests: Exploring the Best Strategies for Saving them.

Economic Development vs Environment: The Politics of Air Pollution, Health and Wealth.

Is this the Best Solution to Global Warming: A Closer Look at the Hybrid Approach to Addressing the Problem of Deforestation.

Evaluating the Impact of Food Waste on Climate Change.

Global Warming in Numbers: Demystifying the Earth Surface Heating Rates in the Last 100 years.

Using Technology to Fix the Problem of Global Warming

Linking Security issues and Global Warming.

Why are the impacts of Global Warming Felt more in Some Countries than Others?

Estimating greenhousegas Emissions from India’s Domestic Water Sector.

Challenges of Addressing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Management Facilities in India.

Assessing the Place of Environmental Activism in Countering the Problem of Global Warming.

Is Global Warming a Natural Cycle?

On the Trails of Global Warming: Does the World have a Future?

Global Warming: Are Human Beings the Biggest Enemies to the Planet?

The Final Take On Writing Global Warming Essays

If you are new to college, tasks such as global warming essay assignments will be very common. This post has demonstrated how to plan for such essays and get the highest marks. Do not let college essays cause stress to you; use the tips provided in this post to write like a pro.



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Writing The Best Global Warming Essay – Take An Original Approach

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Writing an Evaluation Essay

Writing an Evaluation Essay


Writing an evaluation essay is a great way to size up a particular object or idea. This type of critical writing sets precise criteria for evaluation, providing fair and solid supporting evidence so that readers can form their opinions about a subject.

Steps for Writing an Evaluation Essay

  1. Choose a topic you would like to write about. Since you will need to make a value judgment based on a set of criterion, you should know your subject well.
  2. Formulate your thesis statement. The thesis statement of an evaluation essay is its overall purpose and should be stated clearly, giving you the direction that will allow you to distinguish between criteria and select appropriate examples. It should state value, or the lack of it, in regard to what you are writing about.
  3. Think of the criteria you are going to use to make your judgment. It is difficult or even impossible to evaluate your subject immediately—choose several points of interest to make this process easier.
  4. Find supporting evidence to prove your point of view. Since you are making a judgment about an object and presume that your readers will take your viewpoint into consideration, you should not make general statements.
  5. Make a rough draft of your paper. In this draft, organize the criteria and the evidence you find.
  6. Write the paper, following the classic structure: introduction, main body paragraphs, and a conclusion. In the introduction, introduce your value judgment about the chosen topic. In the main body paragraphs, present your supporting evidence to back up your judgment. In the conclusion, briefly summarize your material and restate your final judgment. Also, include a synthesis of your evidence.
  7. Proofread your paper a few times.

Evaluation Essay Topics

Since there are many objects and phenomena we are able to assess, an evaluation essay can be written on a range of topics. To evaluate an object, you will need to compare it with an example within a subject you have chosen; therefore, searching for a conventional standard as a model is a sound idea. Some possible topics of an evaluation essay are listed below:

  • Evaluate the recent season of your favorite sports team. How did the team perform based upon expectations at the start of the season?
  • Examine the difference between watching a game live versus watching it on T.V.
  • Evaluate how a recent romantic movie portrays modern romance.
  • Evaluate a classic romantic movie and what it says about the roles of men and women during that time.
  • Evaluate your favorite hamburger restaurant or compare two popular fast food burger joints.
  • Evaluate a steakhouse for how they make the customer feel after they’ve had a special dinner.
  • Evaluate the latest version of your favorite smartphone. How is it better than the previous version? What changes make the most difference?
  • Evaluate several similar apps, such as several photo editing or dieting program apps. Which one is the best? Which features are the most helpful? Which is easiest to use?
  • Evaluate a charter, military, boarding, private, Christian, or classical school. Compare the learning that happens there with that in public schools.
  • Evaluate the SAT versus the ACT tests.
  • A vacation spot.
  • A new restaurant.
  • An educational website.
  • Foreign policy of a certain state or province.
  • Deeds of a famous historical figure.
  • Service quality.
  • A museum.
  • A piece of art.

Key Points to Consider

  1. No matter how enthusiastic or negative your attitude is towards the chosen topic, the general tone of your essay should be reasonable.
  2. You can use quotations, personal experiences, descriptions, or comparisons with similar objects as evidence.
  3. An evaluation essay is not about giving an unbiased point of view—you come up with an evaluative thesis and provide evidence in its defense.
  4. The more controversial your subject is, the more supporting arguments you might need.
  5. It is also useful to present the opposite point of view. In this way, you will show you are aware that other opinions on the topic also exist.

Do and Don’t

  • Do take your audience you are addressing into consideration. When choosing your topic, remember that some subjects are maybe interesting for one group of people, but could be completely uninteresting for another one.
  • Do pick at least 4-5 criteria to make an assessment. The more criteria you come up with, the more exact and clear your viewpoint becomes for your readers.
  • Do make sure your evidence is balanced between the criteria. Your essay will look much better if you find credible arguments for each of your criterion. Avoid situations when you use one strong piece of evidence for one criterion and none for others.
  • Do find the conventional standard within the topic you have chosen to use as a model for distinguishing your own points and writing an essay.
  • Do use proper grammar and punctuation, and proofread your essay carefully.
Don’t

  • Don’t forget to state your value judgment clearly, otherwise it will be difficult to understand what your paper is about.
  • Don’t be afraid to be concrete in your assessments. Use catching verbs and vivacious nouns in your arguments. Avoid being too general or stating the obvious.
  • Don’t be informal.
  • Don’t be afraid to give both positive and negative assessments to the same object in one paper. For example, when describing a restaurant, you might write that the cuisine was delicious and the atmosphere was sophisticated, but at the same time the service quality could be better and the location of the restaurant was chosen poorly.
  • Don’t use topics that are overused.

Common Mistakes When Writing an Evaluation Essay

– Confusing an evaluation essay with a review. A review is a brief summary and commentary of a book, a movie, or a play, while an evaluation paper provides readers with your personal and detailed assessment about a certain object or idea.

– Choosing too broad of a topic. If you go too wide, you will have to deal with a large amount of possible criteria and supporting evidence, not to mention that it will be more difficult to make an evaluation.

– Writing about an insufficient number of criterion. If you have less than at least three criteria, you will not be able to assess your object in its entirety.

– By any means, avoid using arguments like: “This restaurant is the best in the city because it is great.”

Now that you have acquainted yourself with the basic evaluation essay writing tips and rules, you can check out our evaluation essay samples to link theory with practice.



Writing an Evaluation Essay watch video now:

Writing an Evaluation Essay

Writing an Evaluation Essay

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Writing an Evaluation Essay

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Writing an Evaluation Essay

Writing an Evaluation Essay

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